mercoledì 8 giugno 2016

INTRO *** The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion by Jonathan Haidt

Note: INTRO@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ Tema del libro: xchè è così difficile andare d'accordo? Perchè gli altri ci sembrano sempre tanto ipocriti? Ci si occupa di religione e politica e si spiega come convincere l'altro e convertirlo... Tesi: la ns mente è ossessionata dall' essere nel giusto e crede di esserlo. Tutto ciò genera un duplice effetto: 1) effetto benigno: cooperazione e 2) effetto maligno: conflitti morali... La metafora: la mente raziocinante è come un guidatore di elefanti: può indirizzare il bestione ma ben poco... Principio 1: l'intuizione etica precede il ragionamento etico (che è una razionalizzazione)... Principio 2: l'etica va ben al di là del danno e della correttezza, questo xchè nella dimensione etica noi cerchiamo la ns realizzazione. Metafora: la mente virtuosa è una lingua con 6 sensi, noi in occidente ne sfruttiamo giusto un paio (danno e sofferenza) ma ce ne sono altri (autorità, santità, lealtà)... Principio 3: la moralità ci unisce e ci acceca... Metafora: l'uomo è un pò scimmia un pò ape. C'è una competizione individuale dove ipocriti ed egoisti eccellono ma c'è anche una competizione tra gruppi dove eroismo,altruismo ma anche genocidi e guerra trovano spazio... Religione: è un modo x dare coesione morale al gruppo nella competizione tra gruppi, nn un virus parassita come proposto da Dawkins... I gruppi morali più importanti: sinistra, destra, leberali. Ognuno di noi sceglie il suo gruppo e resta cieco agli altri, qs resta il messaggio centrale... Edit
“Can we all get along?” That appeal was made famous on May 1, 1992, by Rodney King,Read more at location 65
Note: STARE INSIEME Edit
acquittalRead more at location 67
This book is about why it’s so hard for us to get along.Read more at location 77
why we are so easily divided into hostile groups,Read more at location 79
Note: PERCHÈ IL CONFLITTO? Edit
By the end of the tour, I hope to have given you a new way to think about two of the most important, vexing, and divisive topics in human life: politics and religion.Read more at location 84
Note: DUE CONFLITTI Edit
BORN TO BE RIGHTEOUSRead more at location 92
Note: TITOLO Edit
human nature is not just intrinsically moral, it’s also intrinsically moralistic, critical, and judgmental.Read more at location 95
Note: MORALISTI INNATI Edit
self-righteous, which means “convinced of one’s own righteousness, especially in contrast with the actions and beliefs of others; narrowly moralistic and intolerant.”Read more at location 103
Note: AUTOCONVINCERSI Edit
obsession with righteousness (leading inevitably to self-righteousness) is the normal human condition. It is a feature of our evolutionary design, not a bug or errorRead more at location 105
Note: NORMALE CONDIZIONE Edit
Part I is about the first principle: Intuitions come first, strategic reasoning second.Read more at location 114
Note: PARTE I Edit
If you think that moral reasoning is something we do to figure out the truth, you’ll be constantly frustrated by how foolish, biased, and illogical people become when they disagree with you.Read more at location 117
Note: VERITÀ Edit
don’t take people’s moral arguments at face value. They’re mostly post hoc constructionsRead more at location 120
Note: RAZIONALIZZAZIONI Edit
the mind is divided, like a rider on an elephant, and the rider’s job is to serve the elephant. The rider is our conscious reasoning—theRead more at location 122
Note: METAFORA DELL ELEFANTE Edit
I developed this metaphor in my last book, The Happiness Hypothesis,Read more at location 125
it seems like everyone (else) is a hypocriteRead more at location 126
Note: IPOCRISIA Edit
I’ll also use the metaphor to show you how you can better persuade people who seem unresponsive to reason.Read more at location 128
Note: COME EVANGELIZZARE Edit
Part II is about the second principle of moral psychology, which is that there’s more to morality than harm and fairness.Read more at location 129
Note: PARTE II Edit
righteous mind is like a tongue with six taste receptors.Read more at location 130
Western moralities are like cuisines that try to activate just one or two of these receptors—either concerns about harm and suffering, or concerns about fairness and injustice. But people have so many other powerful moral intuitions, such as those related to liberty, loyalty, authority, and sanctity.Read more at location 131
Note: LE DIMENSIONI DELLA MORALE Edit
politicians on the right have a built-in advantageRead more at location 134
Note: I VANTAGGI DELLA DESTRA Edit
Part III is about the third principle: Morality binds and blinds.Read more at location 135
Note: PARTE III Edit
human beings are 90 percent chimp and 10 percent bee.Read more at location 136
Note: SCIMMIE E API Edit
Individuals compete with individuals within every group,Read more at location 137
Note: COMPETIZIONE TRA INDIVIDUI Edit
But human nature was also shaped as groups competed with other groups.Read more at location 139
Note: COMPETIZIONE TRA GRUPPI Edit
Darwin’s ideas about group selection fell out of favor in the 1960s, but recent discoveries are putting his ideas back into play, and the implications are profound. We’re not always selfish hypocrites. We also have the ability, under special circumstances, to shut down our petty selves and become like cells in a larger body, or like bees in a hive,Read more at location 140
Note: GROUP SELECTION Edit
Our bee-like nature facilitates altruism, heroism, war, and genocide.Read more at location 144
Note: ALTRUISMO E GENOCIDIO Edit
I’ll show that our “higher nature” allows us to be profoundly altruistic, but that altruism is mostly aimed at members of our own groups. I’ll show that religion is (probably) an evolutionary adaptation for binding groups together and helping them to create communities with a shared morality. It is not a virus or a parasite, as some scientists (the “New Atheists”) have argued in recent years.Read more at location 145
And I’ll use this perspective to explain why some people are conservative, others are liberal (or progressive), and still others become libertarians. People bind themselves into political teams that share moral narratives. Once they accept a particular narrative, they become blind to alternative moral worlds.Read more at location 148
Note: RELIGIONE. CONTRO I NUOVI ATEI Edit
In the coming chapters I’ll draw on the latest research in neuroscience, genetics, social psychology, and evolutionary modeling, but the take-home message of the book is ancient. It is the realization that we are all self-righteous hypocrites:Read more at location 156
Note: DISCIPLINE MODERNE MESSAGGIO ANTICO E