giovedì 28 luglio 2016

What Are the Implications of the Free Will Debate for Individuals and Society Alfred Mele

Notebook per
What Are the Implications of the Free Will Debate for Individuals and Society
Alfred Mele
Citation (APA): Mele, A. (2014). What Are the Implications of the Free Will Debate for Individuals and Society [Kindle Android version]. Retrieved from

Parte introduttiva
Nota - Posizione 2
l esperimento di libet limite 1 modi di decidere: in libet prendiamo decisioni elementari a caso e quando vogliamo. non sono certo le condizioni in cui scegliamo nella vita quotidiana: divorzi carriera... ci sono decisioni diverse prese con metodi diversi limite 2 attività neuronale: libet ci dice che esiste un attività neuronale che precede la scelta. ma questa attività prob. innesca la coscoenza senza decidere alcunchè 2 definizioni di free will limite 3: previsione prob. libertà. gli studi cprevedono al 60 le ns decisioni. qs non è sufficiente ad eliminare freewill: free&previsione credere in la e comportamenti sociali: chi ci crede è più felice e si comporta meglio
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 2
What Are the Implications of the Free Will Debate for Individuals and Society? By Alfred Mele
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 3
Does free will exist? Current interest in that question is fueled by news reports suggesting that neuroscientists have proved it doesn’t.
Nota - Posizione 4
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 6
One major plank in a well-known neuroscientific argument for the nonexistence of free will is the claim that participants in various experiments make their decisions unconsciously.
Nota - Posizione 7
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 10
The other part of the evidence comes from participants’ reports on when they first became aware of their decisions.
Nota - Posizione 10
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 11
the typical sequence of events is as follows: first, there is the brain activity the scientists focus on, then the participants become aware of decisions (or intentions or urges) to act, and then they act, flexing a wrist or pushing a button, for example.
Nota - Posizione 12
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 15
1. In various experiments, participants decide unconsciously. 2. Only consciously made decisions can be freely made.
Nota - Posizione 16
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 17
3. The way participants decide in these experiments is the way people always decide.
Nota - Posizione 17
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 19
Participants in these experiments are instructed to perform a simple action whenever they want and then report on when they first became aware of an urge, intention, or decision to perform it.
Nota - Posizione 21
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 25
The experimental setting is very different from a situation in which you’re carefully weighing pros and cons
Nota - Posizione 26
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 29
we can’t be confident that all decisions are made in the same way.
Nota - Posizione 30
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 31
the brain activity that experimenters are measuring several hundred milliseconds or several seconds in advance of the action gives rise to additional brain activity that is a conscious decision, and that conscious decision plays a part in producing the action – the flexing, clicking, or pressing. There is no good reason to believe that the early brain activity (measured in seconds with fMRI and in milliseconds in the other studies) is correlated with a decision that is made – unconsciously – at that time.
Nota - Posizione 35
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 44
According to a modest conception of free will, as long as you’re able to make rational, informed, decisions when you’re not being subjected to undue force and also are capable of acting on the basis of some of those decisions, you have free will
Nota - Posizione 46
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 46
According to a more ambitious view, something crucial must be added to these abilities: If you have free will, then alternative decisions are open to you in a way requiring that the natural laws that govern your brain activity sometimes give you at most a probability of deciding one way and a probability of deciding another way.
Nota - Posizione 48
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 52
Most people assume that the future is open in a certain way. As they see it, not only don’t we know now exactly what we will do next week, but it also is not determined
Nota - Posizione 53
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 56
In the fMRI study I mentioned, scientists were able to predict with 60% accuracy,
Nota - Posizione 56
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 58
After all, the evidence leaves a 40% chance that the participant would press the other button.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 63
Believers in ambitious free will thrive on probabilities of action, and that’s exactly what we find in these studies.
Nota - Posizione 63
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 66
lowering people’s confidence in the existence of free will increases bad behavior
Nota - Posizione 67
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 67
belief in free will promotes personal well-being.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 81
When do we become aware of our decisions and why does that matter? How is consciousness related to free will?
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 82
Can we make free decisions unconsciously?
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 86
How much self- understanding does free will require?
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 91
Is free compatible or incompatible with determinism
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 104
Is it possible, in principle, for science to prove that free will is an illusion?