venerdì 29 luglio 2016

How Can We Encourage Imagination Early in Life? Paul Harris

Notebook per
How Can We Encourage Imagination Early in Life?
Paul Harris
Citation (APA): Harris, P. (2014). How Can We Encourage Imagination Early in Life? [Kindle Android version]. Retrieved from

Parte introduttiva
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scappare dal mondo o mapparlo? la costruzione del mondo la fatina dei denti: i bimbi usano i. x capire cosa diciamo loro. confermata l ipotesi realista contro il bambino/scienziato: i bimbi nn distinguono tra realtà sensibile e fantasia ma tra fantasie: esperimenti storia/finzione
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How Can We Encourage Imagination Early in Life? By Paul Harris
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The Work of the Imagination: To Escape Reality or to Make Sense of It?
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Developmental research supports this "escapist" view of the imagination.
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no real tea in the cup
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Effectively, I propose a radically different "realist" view of the imagination.
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Imagination Changes Over Time
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Children who were only told about the change were less accurate.
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Here, we have a simple example of children using their imagination, not to escape from reality, but to guide their understanding of reality.
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Here too, we see that children accept that the real world does not match what they have seen for themselves.
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In a further study, we asked 5- and 6-year-olds about the existence of special beings such as the Tooth Fairy or God.
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construct a conception of the world that goes well beyond what they have seen.
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Perhaps children listen to what they are told and trustingly file away some mental distillation (e.g., The toy is in the box; Germs exist; There is a Tooth Fairy).
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it is appropriate to invoke the imagination when someone invents a piece of make-believe but not when they simply register what they have been told about the way things are.
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Many of the children fully believed in the Tooth Fairy – they had no doubts about her existence. No matter whether they received the "truth" or "fun" instruction, these true believers asserted things that could not have actually happened on her visit, for example, "She flied in the window"
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Clearly, these true believers did not file away and retrieve a minimalist record of what they had been told about the Tooth Fairy. Rather they used what they had been told to create a richer mental schema.
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Strikingly, such elaborations were more or less absent among Tooth Fairy skeptics
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Children Use Imagination to Understand What They are Told
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Does the imagination also infuse children’s ideas about causality? Many developmental psychologists think of children as little scientists who gradually make sense of the natural laws that determine what can and cannot happen. On this view, children’s imagination plays no obvious role in their ideas about causality. However, we have recently obtained results that undermine this child-as-scientist metaphor.
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We began by asking if children differentiate between historical and fictional stories.
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Abraham Lincoln
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Harry Potter,
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fictional stories often include magical elements.
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Children concluded that the soldier who encountered only ordinary events was an actual person whereas the soldier with the invincible sword was make-believe. By implication, children of 5 or 6 years operate with the assumption that magic cannot happen in the real world.
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We gave children quasi-biblical stories – novel stories that echoed the kind of miracle that occurs in the Bible.
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Children’s reactions to these stories varied dramatically. Secular children – those attending public school and not going to church – thought of the protagonist as make-believe whereas children who had received a religious education thought of the protagonist as real. Essentially, the two groups differed in their conception of the real world
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In conclusion, these findings imply that we should not fret about any decline of imaginative ability, as children get older. The conception of reality that children adopt owes a great deal to their imagination. Children, and indeed adults, look at reality and come to interpret it within the deeper, underlying framework that their imagination
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germs and the Tooth Fairy.
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How far does education impact