Pensiero e linguaggio
Citation (APA): ray, G. K. P. J. S. M. L. E. s. b. j. (2014). Pensiero e linguaggio [Kindle Android version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com
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nasce prima il pensiero o il linguaggio? concetti senza termini. bimbi coreani e inglesi il cuore condiviso dei significati destra/sinistra: psicologia lakofiana educazione ricevuta e orientamemto politico
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Which comes first, language or thought? Elizabeth Spelker Babies think first By William J. Cromie
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Do we learn to think before we speak, or does language shape our thoughts?
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"Infants are born with a language-independent system for thinking about objects,"
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For example, when Koreans say that one object joins another, they specify whether the objects touch tightly or loosely. English speakers, in contrast, say whether one object is in or on another.
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CORESNI E INGLESI
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Because languages differ this way, many scientists suspected that children must learn the relevant concepts as they learn their language.
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Infants of English-speaking parents easily grasp the Korean distinction between a cylinder fitting loosely or tightly into a container. In other words, children come into the world with the ability to describe what's on their young minds in English, Korean, or any other language.
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CONCETTI CHE PREVEDONO
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differences in niceties of thought not reflected in a language go unspoken when they get older.
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IL NON DETTO È CMQ SPECIALIZZATA
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When babies see something new, they will look at it until they get bored. Hespos and Spelke used this well-known fact to show different groups of five-month-olds a series of cylinders being placed in and on tight- or loose-fitting containers. The babies watched until they were bored and quit looking. After that happened, the researchers showed them other objects that fit tightly or loosely together. The change got and held their attention for a while, contrary to American college students who failed to notice it. This showed that babies raised in English-speaking communities were sensitive to separate categories of meaning used by Korean, but not by English, adult speakers.
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CAPACITÀ DI ATTENSIONE
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Their findings suggest that language reduces sensitivity to thought distinctions not considered by the native language. "Because chimps and monkeys show similar expectations about objects, languages are probably built on concepts that evolved before humans did,"
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SENSIBILITÀ RIDOTTA MA NN ANNULLATA
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The sounds of meaning
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before babies learn to talk for themselves, they are receptive to the sounds of all languages. But sensitivity to nonnative language sounds drops after the first year of life.
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PREDISPOSIZIONE A TUTTI I LINGUAGGI
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They learn what to ignore,
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This is one reason why it is so difficult for adults to learn a second language,
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IMPARIAMO AD ESCLUDERE. X QS NN IMPARIAMO LE LINGUE
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Speech is for communicating so once a language is learned nothing is lost by ignoring sounds irrelevant to it. However, contrasts such as loose-versus-tight fit help us make sense of the world. Although mature English speakers don't spontaneously notice these categories, they have little difficulty distinguishing them when they are pointed out.
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IMPARARE CONCETTI ESTRANEI NJ È COME IMPARARE UNA LINGUA ESTRANEA
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Even if babies come equipped with all concepts that languages require, children may learn optional word meanings differently.
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Bloom points out, "is that there exists a universal core of meaningful distinctions that all humans share, but other distinctions that people make are shaped by the forces of language. On the other hand, language learning might really be the act of learning to express ideas that already exist,"
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ESPRIMERE IDEE CHE GIÀ ESISTONO
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Lakoff has written a book (reviewed here) which purports to explain the Left/Right polarity of politics as Mother-oriented politics versus Father-oriented politics
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DESTRA SINISTRA MADRE PADRE
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He rightly points out that there are many "contradictions" (I would call them compromises) in any real-life political program
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he has a grand theory that explains how all such apparent contradictions arise -- a theory that shows the real consistency underlying
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I too think I can explain the inconsistencies Lakoff mentions but I think I can explain it, not in a book, but in one paragraph.
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What I would say that is that the contradictions arise because neither side of politics is in fact much INTERESTED in being consistent.
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Conservatives don't like theories and just go by what seems to have worked well for people in the world to date
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And Leftists are only interested in what sounds good at the time
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Leftists want to make us "better" while at the same time denying that there is any such thing as "better"!!
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CONTRADDIZIONE A SINISTRA
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If women are basically Leftist, shouldn't they mostly VOTE Leftist?
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And good old Joe Stalin sure was a motherly, feminine character wasn't he?
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Lakoff's whole idea that political attitudes are formed by childhood experiences with parenting is however just a minor variation on the old "California" theory put forward by the Marxist Adorno
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Lakoff and the feminists
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Steven Pinker has written a good takedown of Lakoff. Excerpt:………….The field of linguistics has exported a number of big ideas to the world. They include the evolution of languages as an inspiration to Darwin for the evolution of species; the analysis of contrasting sounds as an inspiration for structuralism in literary theory and anthropology; the Whorfian hypothesis that language shapes thought; and Chomsky's theory of deep structure and universal grammar. Even by these standards, George Lakoff's theory of conceptual metaphor is a lollapalooza. If Lakoff is right, his theory can do everything from overturning millennia of misguided thinking in the Western intellectual tradition to putting a Democrat in the White House. ...
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PINKER SU LAKOFF
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marcare il futuro ci rende miopi? pullman: 4 critiche x' ci affascina associare comportamenti r lingua (sedivy)? x' diciamo lingua e intendiamo cultura
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Keith Chen, Whorfian economist Geoffrey K. Pullum Julie Sedivy Mark Liberman
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Chen's paper alleges that a certain simple grammatical property of languages correlates robustly with indicators of profligacy and lack of prudence,
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CHEN: LINGUA E DISSOLUTEXZA
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if your language has clear grammatical future tense marking (and thus is a strong future time reference or strong FTR language), then you and your fellow native speakers have a dramatically increased likelihood of exhibiting high rates of obesity, smoking, drinking, debt, and poor pension provision, as if they had little concern for the future.
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LINGUE CHE MARCANO IL FUTURO E OBESITÀ
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PROBLEMI GIÀ SULLA CLASSIFICAZIONE
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The language of the Pirahã Indians of Brazil, studied by Daniel Everett, has no future tense marking whatever— it is not just weak FTR, it is zero FTR. But, contrary to Chen's prediction, the Pirahã are unconcerned with planning for the future,
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I find that I might just as well be convinced that a language with grammatical future tense marking would have speakers who paid MORE attention to worrying about the future.
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TESI CONTROINTUITIVA PROVE ULTERIORI
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I have some colleagues here at the University of Edinburgh, within Simon Kirby's research group, who have run some informal experiments on the data Chen uses to see if dredging up spurious correlations of this kind is easy or hard,
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FACILE LA CORRELAZIONE SPURIA
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None of these briefly summarized worries about Chen's work, however, disturb me as much as the appalling journalistic misrepresentations that David Berreby offers us. His title is: "Obese? Smoker?
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although it is possible in principle to devise empirically testable Whorfian hypotheses (see thediscussion by Barbara Scholz and colleagues here), I wouldn't bet a dime on this particular Whorfian thesis.
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Is Your Language Making You Broke and Fat? How Language Can Shape Thinking and Behavior (and How It Can’t) By Julie Sedivy
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To many people, it’s intuitively obvious that dropping consonants in pronunciation is the mark of a lazy culture, that romancing someone is easiest in a language that’s intrinsically as soothing and soft as French, and that the disciplined German mind is in part a product of the strictly rigid and orderly German language.
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R MODCIA ITALIA OPERA TEDESCO DISCIPLINA
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As noted by Guy Deutscher, in his book Through the Language Glass, “the industrious Protestant Danes have dropped more consonants onto their icy, windswept soil than any indolent tropical tribe.
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Is Italian culture vulnerable to corruption because there is no Italian word that directly translates as accountability?
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ACCOUNTABILITY IN ITALIANO
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we’d expect more egalitarian cultures to spring from entirely gender-neutral languages like Dari, the variant of Persian that’s spoken in Afghanistan.
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GENDER NEITRAL CULTURA E LINGUA. AFGHANISTAN
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I bet you’d find a correlation between tonal languages and the use of chopsticks at mealtimes, simply because both of these spread throughout a particular geographic region.
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If language structure has quite a limited effect on the way we think and act, why then do we have these sturdy impressions that some languages are inherently more romantic, slovenly, logical, or fussy than others?
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A particularly nice illustration comes from a study by Dirk Akkermans and colleagues, in which bilingual Dutch subjects played a business variant of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game, intended to test the degree of cooperative versus competitive behavior. (The game is set up so that you reap the highest profits if both you and your partner choose a cooperative strategy of keeping prices for your products high, and the lowest profits if you play cooperatively but your partner chooses to undersell you.) Half of the subjects played the game in English, and half played the game in Dutch—the idea being that the English language is more closely associated with highly individualistic and competitive cultures than Dutch.
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GIOCO DEL PRIGIONIERO IN DUE LINGUE
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the effects of language on strategy choice really depended on how much direct exposure to Anglophone culture the subjects had.
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Actual proficiency in English had no discernible impact.
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Thought experiments on language and thought Julie Sedivy
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"The explanation in question is almost certain to be false. However, if it were true, it would be incredibly interesting, so we have no choice but to explore it."
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SULL IPOTESI CHEN
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The main finding is that there is a robust correlation such that families who speak a language in which future tense marking is classified as obligatory tend to also engage in self-sabotaging behaviors like saving less money, exercising less and smoking more.
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TESI CHEN RIPETUTA
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correlation holds if we look only at families
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ENFASI SULLA FSMIGLIA X I CTRL
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country of birth and residence, sex and age of family members, family structure, income, number of children, and religion.
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Controlling for such variables offers only mild reassurance if any,
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x UN CONTROLLO SCARSAMENTE UTILE
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very similar families would choose to speak different languages
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X DIVERSITÀ DEI LING IN FAMIGLIA
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UN PRECEDENTE. LINGUAGGIO CHE TIRA LA CULTURA ANCHE SU CHI APPARTIENE A DIVERSE CULTURE
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Rather, it's properly understood as a sociolinguistic phenomenon: Labov suggested that people adopt specific patterns of pronunciation as a way of subconsciously signaling solidarity with a particular community and its attitudinal mindset.
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L ADESIONE CULTURALE ALLA LINGUA CHE SI SCEGLIE DI PARLARE
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vowel-raising had become a sort of identity badge for broadcasting one's attitudes.
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X MARCHOO D IDENTITÀ
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X ESP IDEALE IMPRATIC
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X PAROLE CHE INCENTIVANO
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a well-known study by John Bargh and colleagues has famously shown that you can prime meek behavior by having subjects unscramble sentences laced with words like graciously, respect, and honor, and that undergraduates exposed to words like gray, Florida, and bingoundergo accelerated aging, performing badly on memory tests, and walking more slowly.
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x PAROLE DEPRIMENTI
David Beaver has discussed a particularly interesting study in which people were more likely to vote in an election depending on the wording of a question they'd been asked the previous day: If subjects were asked "how important is it to you to be a voter?" they were dramatically more likely to cast their ballot than if they'd been asked "how important is to you to vote?"
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x INCENTIVARE IL VOTO CON LA PAROLINA
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x ESP IDEALE PRATICATO: SIMILE AL DILEMMA CON GLI STESSI INCONV (VEDI DOPO)
It's true that you can elicit rude or polite behavior with certain words. But you can also prime behavior with just about any stimuli that elicit social stereotypes—people become more aggressive after seeing images of African Americans, perform better on tests after being primed with thoughts of professors rather than soccer hooligans
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x LA SPINTA NN È LINGUISTICA MA DERIVA DA ASSOCIAZIONI CYLTURALI
All of this should lead us to worry that our hypothetical research subjects are being primed less by the grammar of their languages, and more by the cultural associations of their languages
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NN LA GRAMMATICA MA L ASSOCIAZIONE CULTURALE
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x SUL DILEMMA X BILINGUISTI
If we must, perhaps we could refer to such results as socio-Whorfian effects.
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Personally, I'm not willing to plunk down any-sized bet that these predictions would come out. If I had to bet any portion of my Language Log royalties, I'd put my money on a socio-Whorfian effect showing an effect of language, but no additional impact of future tense.
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