Pensiero e linguaggio
Citation (APA): ray, G. K. P. J. S. M. L. E. s. b. j. (2014). Pensiero e linguaggio [Kindle Android version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com
Nota - Posizione 1
nasce prima il pensiero o il linguaggio? concetti senza termini. bimbi coreani e inglesi il cuore condiviso dei significati destra/sinistra: psicologia lakofiana educazione ricevuta e orientamemto politico
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 27
Which comes first, language or thought? Elizabeth Spelker Babies think first By William J. Cromie
Nota - Posizione 28
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 29
Do we learn to think before we speak, or does language shape our thoughts?
Nota - Posizione 29
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 30
"Infants are born with a language-independent system for thinking about objects,"
Nota - Posizione 31
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 32
For example, when Koreans say that one object joins another, they specify whether the objects touch tightly or loosely. English speakers, in contrast, say whether one object is in or on another.
Nota - Posizione 34
CORESNI E INGLESI
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 37
Because languages differ this way, many scientists suspected that children must learn the relevant concepts as they learn their language.
Nota - Posizione 37
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 38
Infants of English-speaking parents easily grasp the Korean distinction between a cylinder fitting loosely or tightly into a container. In other words, children come into the world with the ability to describe what's on their young minds in English, Korean, or any other language.
Nota - Posizione 40
CONCETTI CHE PREVEDONO
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 40
differences in niceties of thought not reflected in a language go unspoken when they get older.
Nota - Posizione 40
IL NON DETTO È CMQ SPECIALIZZATA
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 42
When babies see something new, they will look at it until they get bored. Hespos and Spelke used this well-known fact to show different groups of five-month-olds a series of cylinders being placed in and on tight- or loose-fitting containers. The babies watched until they were bored and quit looking. After that happened, the researchers showed them other objects that fit tightly or loosely together. The change got and held their attention for a while, contrary to American college students who failed to notice it. This showed that babies raised in English-speaking communities were sensitive to separate categories of meaning used by Korean, but not by English, adult speakers.
Nota - Posizione 47
CAPACITÀ DI ATTENSIONE
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 50
Their findings suggest that language reduces sensitivity to thought distinctions not considered by the native language. "Because chimps and monkeys show similar expectations about objects, languages are probably built on concepts that evolved before humans did,"
Nota - Posizione 51
SENSIBILITÀ RIDOTTA MA NN ANNULLATA
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 53
The sounds of meaning
Nota - Posizione 54
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 54
before babies learn to talk for themselves, they are receptive to the sounds of all languages. But sensitivity to nonnative language sounds drops after the first year of life.
Nota - Posizione 55
PREDISPOSIZIONE A TUTTI I LINGUAGGI
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 58
They learn what to ignore,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 60
This is one reason why it is so difficult for adults to learn a second language,
Nota - Posizione 61
IMPARIAMO AD ESCLUDERE. X QS NN IMPARIAMO LE LINGUE
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 62
Speech is for communicating so once a language is learned nothing is lost by ignoring sounds irrelevant to it. However, contrasts such as loose-versus-tight fit help us make sense of the world. Although mature English speakers don't spontaneously notice these categories, they have little difficulty distinguishing them when they are pointed out.
Nota - Posizione 63
IMPARARE CONCETTI ESTRANEI NJ È COME IMPARARE UNA LINGUA ESTRANEA
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 66
Even if babies come equipped with all concepts that languages require, children may learn optional word meanings differently.
Nota - Posizione 66
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 68
Bloom points out, "is that there exists a universal core of meaningful distinctions that all humans share, but other distinctions that people make are shaped by the forces of language. On the other hand, language learning might really be the act of learning to express ideas that already exist,"
Nota - Posizione 70
ESPRIMERE IDEE CHE GIÀ ESISTONO
Nota - Posizione 72
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 74
Lakoff has written a book (reviewed here) which purports to explain the Left/Right polarity of politics as Mother-oriented politics versus Father-oriented politics
Nota - Posizione 75
DESTRA SINISTRA MADRE PADRE
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 76
He rightly points out that there are many "contradictions" (I would call them compromises) in any real-life political program
Nota - Posizione 77
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 77
he has a grand theory that explains how all such apparent contradictions arise -- a theory that shows the real consistency underlying
Nota - Posizione 78
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 79
I too think I can explain the inconsistencies Lakoff mentions but I think I can explain it, not in a book, but in one paragraph.
Nota - Posizione 80
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 80
What I would say that is that the contradictions arise because neither side of politics is in fact much INTERESTED in being consistent.
Nota - Posizione 81
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 81
Conservatives don't like theories and just go by what seems to have worked well for people in the world to date
Nota - Posizione 82
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 82
And Leftists are only interested in what sounds good at the time
Nota - Posizione 83
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 87
Leftists want to make us "better" while at the same time denying that there is any such thing as "better"!!
Nota - Posizione 87
CONTRADDIZIONE A SINISTRA
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 102
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 107
If women are basically Leftist, shouldn't they mostly VOTE Leftist?
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 111
And good old Joe Stalin sure was a motherly, feminine character wasn't he?
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 126
Lakoff's whole idea that political attitudes are formed by childhood experiences with parenting is however just a minor variation on the old "California" theory put forward by the Marxist Adorno
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 165
Lakoff and the feminists
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 214
Steven Pinker has written a good takedown of Lakoff. Excerpt: ………….The field of linguistics has exported a number of big ideas to the world. They include the evolution of languages as an inspiration to Darwin for the evolution of species; the analysis of contrasting sounds as an inspiration for structuralism in literary theory and anthropology; the Whorfian hypothesis that language shapes thought; and Chomsky's theory of deep structure and universal grammar. Even by these standards, George Lakoff's theory of conceptual metaphor is a lollapalooza. If Lakoff is right, his theory can do everything from overturning millennia of misguided thinking in the Western intellectual tradition to putting a Democrat in the White House. ...
Nota - Posizione 219
PINKER SU LAKOFF
Nota - Posizione 225
marcare il futuro ci rende miopi? pullman: 4 critiche x' ci affascina associare comportamenti r lingua (sedivy)? x' diciamo lingua e intendiamo cultura
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 225
Keith Chen, Whorfian economist Geoffrey K. Pullum Julie Sedivy Mark Liberman
Nota - Posizione 225
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 227
Chen's paper alleges that a certain simple grammatical property of languages correlates robustly with indicators of profligacy and lack of prudence,
Nota - Posizione 228
CHEN: LINGUA E DISSOLUTEXZA
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 233
if your language has clear grammatical future tense marking (and thus is a strong future time reference or strong FTR language), then you and your fellow native speakers have a dramatically increased likelihood of exhibiting high rates of obesity, smoking, drinking, debt, and poor pension provision, as if they had little concern for the future.
Nota - Posizione 235
LINGUE CHE MARCANO IL FUTURO E OBESITÀ
Nota - Posizione 245
PROBLEMI GIÀ SULLA CLASSIFICAZIONE
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 256
The language of the Pirahã Indians of Brazil, studied by Daniel Everett, has no future tense marking whatever — it is not just weak FTR, it is zero FTR. But, contrary to Chen's prediction, the Pirahã are unconcerned with planning for the future,
Nota - Posizione 258
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 262
I find that I might just as well be convinced that a language with grammatical future tense marking would have speakers who paid MORE attention to worrying about the future.
Nota - Posizione 263
TESI CONTROINTUITIVA PROVE ULTERIORI
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 269
I have some colleagues here at the University of Edinburgh, within Simon Kirby's research group, who have run some informal experiments on the data Chen uses to see if dredging up spurious correlations of this kind is easy or hard,
Nota - Posizione 270
FACILE LA CORRELAZIONE SPURIA
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 272
None of these briefly summarized worries about Chen's work, however, disturb me as much as the appalling journalistic misrepresentations that David Berreby offers us. His title is: "Obese? Smoker?
Nota - Posizione 273
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 279
although it is possible in principle to devise empirically testable Whorfian hypotheses (see thediscussion by Barbara Scholz and colleagues here), I wouldn't bet a dime on this particular Whorfian thesis.
Nota - Posizione 281
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 285
Is Your Language Making You Broke and Fat? How Language Can Shape Thinking and Behavior (and How It Can’t) By Julie Sedivy
Nota - Posizione 286
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 304
To many people, it’s intuitively obvious that dropping consonants in pronunciation is the mark of a lazy culture, that romancing someone is easiest in a language that’s intrinsically as soothing and soft as French, and that the disciplined German mind is in part a product of the strictly rigid and orderly German language.
Nota - Posizione 306
R MODCIA ITALIA OPERA TEDESCO DISCIPLINA
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 307
As noted by Guy Deutscher, in his book Through the Language Glass, “the industrious Protestant Danes have dropped more consonants onto their icy, windswept soil than any indolent tropical tribe.
Nota - Posizione 309
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 311
Is Italian culture vulnerable to corruption because there is no Italian word that directly translates as accountability?
Nota - Posizione 312
ACCOUNTABILITY IN ITALIANO
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 319
we’d expect more egalitarian cultures to spring from entirely gender-neutral languages like Dari, the variant of Persian that’s spoken in Afghanistan.
Nota - Posizione 320
GENDER NEITRAL CULTURA E LINGUA. AFGHANISTAN
Nota - Posizione 327
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 329
I bet you’d find a correlation between tonal languages and the use of chopsticks at mealtimes, simply because both of these spread throughout a particular geographic region.
Nota - Posizione 330
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 332
If language structure has quite a limited effect on the way we think and act, why then do we have these sturdy impressions that some languages are inherently more romantic, slovenly, logical, or fussy than others?
Nota - Posizione 333
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 336
A particularly nice illustration comes from a study by Dirk Akkermans and colleagues, in which bilingual Dutch subjects played a business variant of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game, intended to test the degree of cooperative versus competitive behavior. (The game is set up so that you reap the highest profits if both you and your partner choose a cooperative strategy of keeping prices for your products high, and the lowest profits if you play cooperatively but your partner chooses to undersell you.) Half of the subjects played the game in English, and half played the game in Dutch—the idea being that the English language is more closely associated with highly individualistic and competitive cultures than Dutch.
Nota - Posizione 340
GIOCO DEL PRIGIONIERO IN DUE LINGUE
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 341
the effects of language on strategy choice really depended on how much direct exposure to Anglophone culture the subjects had.
Nota - Posizione 342
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 345
Actual proficiency in English had no discernible impact.
Nota - Posizione 345
Nota - Posizione 351
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 351
Thought experiments on language and thought Julie Sedivy
Segnalibro - Posizione 351
Nota - Posizione 352
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 354
"The explanation in question is almost certain to be false. However, if it were true, it would be incredibly interesting, so we have no choice but to explore it."
Nota - Posizione 355
SULL IPOTESI CHEN
Nota - Posizione 357
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 357
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 358
The main finding is that there is a robust correlation such that families who speak a language in which future tense marking is classified as obligatory tend to also engage in self-sabotaging behaviors like saving less money, exercising less and smoking more.
Nota - Posizione 359
TESI CHEN RIPETUTA
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 363
country of birth and residence, sex and age of family members, family structure, income, number of children, and religion.
Nota - Posizione 363
Nota - Posizione 374
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 378
Rather, it's properly understood as a sociolinguistic phenomenon: Labov suggested that people adopt specific patterns of pronunciation as a way of subconsciously signaling solidarity with a particular community and its attitudinal mindset.
Nota - Posizione 379
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 380
vowel-raising had become a sort of identity badge for broadcasting one's attitudes.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 383
A causal explanation between vowel raising and distrust of outsiders is a non-starter for the simple reason that there's no plausible mechanism by which the former could influence the latter.
Nota - Posizione 384
CAUSA SENSO COMUNE
Nota - Posizione 391
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 400
a well-known study by John Bargh and colleagues has famously shown that you can prime meek behavior by having subjects unscramble sentences laced with words like graciously, respect, and honor, and that undergraduates exposed to words like gray, Florida, and bingoundergo accelerated aging, performing badly on memory tests, and walking more slowly.
Nota - Posizione 403
Nota - Posizione 405
Nota - Posizione 410
SPERIMENTARE COL BILINGUISMO X ELIMINARE L EFFETTO CULTURA
Nota - Posizione 418
Nota - Posizione 423
NN LA GRAMMATICA MA L ASSOCIAZIONE CULTURALE
Nota - Posizione 430
ANCORA IL DILEMMA DEL PRIG X I BILINGUISTI
Nota - Posizione 436
Nota - Posizione 438
Nota - Posizione 439
Nota - Posizione 441
Nota - Posizione 449