It Takes More Than Performance – Power: Why Some People Have It—and Others Don’t – Jeffrey Pfeffer
Trigger warning: – performance e promozioni – performance e paga – performance e fortuna – le performance sono infinite – ostentare – la figlia del capo – il leccaculo – politica e performance
If you think it’s just in the domain of public education where success fails to guarantee job security, think again.
Note:SCUOLA E ANTIMERITOCRAZIA
And it’s not just in the public sector where there is a weak link between job performance and career outcomes.
Note:STATALI E MULTINAZIONALI
And it’s not just at the highest levels or just in the United States where performance doesn’t guarantee success.
Note:NON SOLO IN VETTA
Not only doesn’t good performance guarantee you will maintain a position of power, poor performance doesn’t mean you will necessarily lose your job.
Note:LA PERFORMANCE NON E’ TUTTO…ANZI
One of the biggest mistakes people make is thinking that good performance—job accomplishments—is sufficient to acquire power and avoid organizational difficulties. Consequently, people leave too much to chance and fail to effectively manage their careers.
Note:AFFIDARSI ALLA PERFORMANCE E’ AFFIDARSI ALLA FORTUNA
THE WEAK LINK BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND JOB OUTCOMES
More than 20 years ago social psychologist David Schoorman studied the performance appraisal ratings obtained by 354 clerical employees working in a public sector organization.
guess, supervisors who were actively involved in hiring people whom they favored rated those subordinates more highly on performance appraisals than they did those employees they inherited or the ones they did not initially support.
Note:FAVORITISMI A GO GO
In 1980, economists James Medoff and Katherine Abraham observed that salaries in companies were more strongly related to age and organizational tenure than they were to job performance.6 Ensuing research has confirmed and extended their findings,
Not only may outstanding job performance not guarantee you a promotion, it can even hurt.
Note:L’EFFICIENZA CHE DANNEGGIA
“I’m not going to let you go because you are too good in the job you are doing for me.”
Note:RISPOSTA STANDARD AI CAPACI CHE CHIEDONO POSTI DI RESPONSABILITA’
Most studies of job tenure examine CEOs, because CEOs are highly visible and that’s the position for which there is the best data. Performance does affect job tenure and its obverse, getting fired, but again the effects are small.
So great job performance by itself is insufficient and may not even be necessary for getting and holding positions of power.
Note:SUFFICIENTE E NECESSARIO
People in power are busy with their own agendas and jobs. Such people, including those higher up in your own organization, probably aren’t paying that much attention to you and what you are doing.
Note:L’ATTENZIONE DEL CAPO COME RISORSA SCARSA
The importance of standing out contradicts much conventional wisdom. There is a common saying that I first heard in Japan but since have heard in Western Europe as well: the nail that sticks up gets hammered down.
In advertising, one of the most prominent measures of effectiveness is ad recall—not taste, logic, or artistry—simply, do you remember the ad and the product?
people, other things being equal, prefer and choose what is familiar to them—what they have seen or experienced before. …The simple fact is that people like what they remember— …
An Italian executive who has worked in numerous large multinational corporations and has risen quickly through the ranks is an outspoken and provocative individual. Consequently, he sometimes irritates people. But as another manager told me, “decades from now I will remember him, while I will have forgotten most of his contemporaries.”
DEFINE THE DIMENSIONS OF PERFORMANCE
Tina Brown’s performance as a magazine editor depends on what criteria you choose to evaluate her work. She presided over great growth in advertising revenue and circulation. She garnered press attention for herself and the magazines. But there was no economic profit.
Note:MR.PROFITTO E I SUOI FRATELLI
There are limits to what you can do to affect the criteria used to judge your work. But you can highlight those dimensions of job performance that favor you—and work against your competition.
Note:ESALTATE I PUNTI FORTI
REMEMBER WHAT MATTERS TO YOUR BOSS
One of the reasons that performance matters less than people expect is that performance has many dimensions. Furthermore, what matters to your boss may not be the same things that you think are important. Jamie Dimon lost his job at Citigroup when he got into a tussle with Sandy Weill’s daughter, who also worked for the company. Weill cared about his family, not just about the financial results of Citigroup.
Note:LA FIGLIA DEL CAPO
Many people believe that they know what their bosses care about. But unless they are mind readers, that’s probably a risky assumption. It is much more effective for you to ask those in power, on a regular basis, what aspects of the job they think are the most crucial and how they see what you ought to be doing.
MAKE OTHERS FEEL BETTER ABOUT THEMSELVES
You can almost always tell at least one aspect of your job performance that will be crucial: do you, in how you conduct yourself, what you talk about, and what you accomplish, make those in power feel better about themselves?
Note:FAR STAR BENE GLI ALTRI
And because people like themselves, people prefer others who are similar, because what is more self-enhancing than to choose someone who reminds you of—you! A large literature documents the importance of similarity in predicting interpersonal attraction.
because people like those who are similar to them, they also favor their own groups and disfavor competitive groups—an effect called ingroup bias and outgroup derogation18—and also prefer people from their own social categories, for instance, of similar race and socioeconomic background. One sure way to make your boss feel worse is to criticize that individual, and this criticism is going to be particularly sensitive if it concerns an issue that the boss feels is important and where there is some inherent insecurity.
Note:NON CRITICARE IL GRUPPO – CINISMO=>SCARSO PRESTIGIO
The lesson: worry about the relationship you have with your boss at least as much as you worry about your job performance.
Note:LE RELAZIONI CONTANO
One of the best ways to make those in power feel better about themselves is to flatter them. The research literature shows how effective flattery is as a strategy to gain influence.
Note:LECCARE IL CULO PAGA
Most people underestimate the effectiveness of flattery and therefore underutilize it.
There is simply no question that the desire to believe that flattery is at once sincere and accurate will, in most instances, leave us susceptible to being flattered and, as a consequence, under the influence of the flatterer.
Note:DIFFICILE CHE IL BOSS PENSI ALL’ADULATORE COME A PERSONA INSINCERA
The people responsible for your success are those above you, with the power to either promote you or to block your rise up the organization chart.
Note:IL TUO SUCCESSO DIPENDE DAL TUO CAPO… NON DAI TUOI RISULTATI
It is performance, coupled with political skill, that will help you rise through the ranks. Performance by itself is seldom sufficient, and in some instances, may not even be necessary.