martedì 5 aprile 2016

SIX ECASH Future Imperfect: Technology and Freedom in an Uncertain World by David D. Friedman

SIX ECASH Future Imperfect: Technology and Freedom in an Uncertain World by David D. Friedman - unasempliceantispam oltreilporno fiduciacommissioniprivacy nientecasseforti signoraggioepubblicità firmareedoublespending ecashnelmondoreale c/cvirtuali benedireteeostilitàgoverni 
SIX Read more at location 955
Note: 6@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ Edit
One is that a seller does not have to know anything about me in order to accept cash. That makes money a better medium for transactions with strangers,Read more at location 956
Note: VANTAGGI DEL CONTANTE. FIDUCIA Edit
better medium for small transactions, since using cash avoids the fixed costsRead more at location 957
Note: EVITA COMMISSIONI Edit
money leaves no paper trail, which is useful not only for criminals but for anyone who wants to protect his privacyRead more at location 958
Note: PROTEGGE LA PRIVACY Edit
The advantage of money is greater in cyberspace, since transactions with strangers,Read more at location 960
Note: NELLO CYBERSPAZIO Edit
The disadvantage is less, since my ecash would be stored inside my computer,Read more at location 961
Note: NIENTE CASSEFORTI Edit
Despite its potential usefulness, there is as yet no equivalent of cash available online,Read more at location 962
Note: XCHÈ MANCA L ECASH? Edit
The reason is in part the hostility of governments to competition in the money business,Read more at location 963
Note: RILUTTANZA DEI GOVERNI Edit
difficulty of getting standards,Read more at location 963
giving at least one example of why it would be useful - for something more important than allowing men to look at pornography online without their wives or employers finding out. Read more at location 965
Note: OLTRE IL PORNO Edit
SLICING SPAM Read more at location 966
Note: IL PROBLEMA DELLE SPAM Edit
There is a simple solution to this problem - so simple that I am surprised it is not yet in common use. The solution is to put a price on your mailbox.Read more at location 969
Note: MAIL A PAGAMENTO Edit
Give your email program a list of the people you wish to receive mail from. Mail from anyone not on the list is returned with a note explaining that you charge five cents to read mail from strangers - and the URL of the stamp machine. Five cents is a trivial cost to anyone with something to sayRead more at location 970
Note: SOLUZIONE 5 CENT Edit
The stamp machine is located on a web page. The stamps are digital cash. Pay $10 from your credit card and you get in exchange 200 five-cent stamps - each a morsel of encrypted information that you can transfer to someone else who can in turn transfer it. Read more at location 973
Note: FRANCOBOLLO Edit
If lots of strangers choose to send me messages, I can accumulate a surplusRead more at location 976
What is in it for the stamp machine - why would someone maintain such a system? Part of the answer is seigniorageRead more at location 980
Note: SIGNORAGGIO Edit
If your stamps are popular, many of them may stay in circulation for a long time - leaving the money that bought them in your bank account accumulating interest. Read more at location 981
Note: INTERESSI DEL SIGNORAGGIO Edit
If you own the stamp machine, you also own the wall behind it - the web page people visit to buy stamps. Advertisements on that wall will be seen by a lot of people. Read more at location 983
Note: PUBBLICITÀ Edit
One reason this solution to spam requires ecash is that it involves a large number of very small payments.Read more at location 984
Note: QUANDO L ECASH Edit
A second reason is privacy. Many of us would prefer not to leave a complete record of our correspondenceRead more at location 986
Note: PRIVACY Edit
CONSTRUCTING ECASH Read more at location 988
how to provide people with virtual banknotes that cannot be counterfeited. Read more at location 988
Note: CONTRAFFAZIONE Edit
The solution is a digital signature.Read more at location 989
Note: FIRMA DIGITALE Edit
It digitally signs the note, using its private key.Read more at location 989
Note: CHIAVE PRIVATA Edit
When he receives the file he checks the digital signature against the bank's public key. Read more at location 992
The Double Spending Problem Read more at location 992
Sending a copy of the file in payment for one transaction does not erase it from your computer,Read more at location 993
Note: COPIARE LA MONETA Edit
One solution is for the bank to give each dollar its own identification number and keep track of which ones have been spent.Read more at location 995
Note: NUMERO IDENTIFICATIVO Edit
This solves the problem of double spending, but it also eliminates most of the advantages of ecash over credit cards. The bank knows that it issued banknote 94602... to Alice,Read more at location 998
Note: NIENTE PRIVACY CON L ID Edit
The solution to this problem uses what David Chaum, the Dutch cryptographer who is responsible for many of the ideas underlying ecash, calls blind signatures.Read more at location 1000
Note: FIRMA CIECA Edit
Curious readers will want to know how it is possible for a bank to sign a serial number without knowing what it is. I cannot tell them without first explaining the mathematics of public key encryption,Read more at location 1007
But digital cash could also be useful for realspace transactions, and the cabby or hotdog vendor may not yet have an Internet connection.Read more at location 1011
Note: SPENDERE ECASH FUORI DAL CYBERSPAZIO Edit
Low-Tech Ecash Read more at location 1017
Robot Mechanics Read more at location 1039
You tell your computer what to pay to whom; it tells you what other people have paid to you and how much money you have.Read more at location 1042
Note: IL SALDO Edit
Random numbers, checks of digital signatures, blind signing, and all the rest are done in the background.Read more at location 1043
how little most of us know about how the tools we routinely use, such as cars, computers, or radios, actually work. Read more at location 1044
Note: COSE CHE USIAMO SENZA CAPIRE Edit
ECASH AND PRIVACY Read more at location 1044
Note: PRIVACY Edit
What motivated him was the problem we discussed back in Chapter 4 - the loss of privacy created by the ability of modern information processing to combine publicly available information into a detailed portrait of each individual. Read more at location 1045
Note: MOTIVAZIONI DI CHAUM Edit
It would be very convenient if, instead of stopping at a toll booth when getting on or off the interstate, we could simply drive past, making the payment automaticallyRead more at location 1047
Note: TELEPASS Edit
One problem is privacy. If the payment is made with a credit card, or if the toll agency adds up each month's tolls and sends you a bill, someone has a complete record of every trip you have taken on the toll road, every time you have crossed a toll bridge.Read more at location 1049
Note: PEDAGGI E PRIVACY Edit
Ecash solves that problem. As you whiz past the tollbooth, your car pays it fifty cents in anonymous ecash. By the time you are thirty feet down the road, the (online) tollbooth has checked that the money is good; if it isn't an alarm goes off, a camera triggers, and if you do not stop a traffic cop eventually appears on your tail.Read more at location 1052
Note: PAGARE CON L ECASH Edit
It works for shopping as well. Ecash - this time encoded in a smart card in your wallet,Read more at location 1055
Note: CARTE DI CREDITO SUI CONTI ECASH Edit
PRIVATE MONEY: A NEW OLD STORY Read more at location 1058
My examples so far assume that ecash will be produced and redeemed by private banks but denominated in government money.Read more at location 1058
Note: AGGANCIARE AL DOLLARO? MA ANCHE NO. Edit
any ecash expected to circulate widely will be issued by organizations with reputations.Read more at location 1065
Note: REPUTAZIONE Edit
Some economists, in rejecting the idea of private money, have argued that such an institution is inherently inflationary.Read more at location 1067
Note: INFLAZIONE NATURALE? Edit
The rebuttal to this particular argument was published in 1776. When Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations, the money of Scotland consisted largely of banknotes issued by private banks, redeemable in silver.' As Smith pointed out, while a bank could print as many notes as it wished, it could not persuade other people to hold an unlimited number of its notes.Read more at location 1069
Note: CONFUTAZIONE DI SMITH Edit
The obligation of the bank to redeem its money guarantees its value,Read more at location 1075
So far I have assumed that future ecash will be denominated in dollars.Read more at location 1079
Dollars have one great advantage - they provide a common unit already in widespread use. They also have one great disadvantage - they are produced by a government, and it may not always be in the interest of that government to maintain their value in a stable,Read more at location 1079
Note: VANTAGGI E SVANTAGGI Edit
Dollars have a second disadvantage, although perhaps a less serious one. Because they are issued by a particular government, citizens of other governments may prefer not to use them.Read more at location 1084
Note: SECONDO SVANTAGGIO Edit
If large amounts of gold are discovered or if someone invents new and better techniques for extracting gold from low-grade ore, the value of gold, and of gold-based money, will decline.2Read more at location 1088
Note: DIFETTI DEL GOLD STANDARD Edit
That problem is solved by replacing a simple commodity standard with a commodity bundle.Read more at location 1091
Note: COMODITY BUNDLE Edit
getting all the firms issuing ecash to agree on the same bundle. If they fail to establish a common standard, we end up with a cyberspace in which different people use different currencies and the exchange rates between them vary randomly. That is not an unworkable situation - Europeans lived with it for a very long time - but it is a nuisance. Life is easier if the money I use is the same as the money used by the people I do business with.Read more at location 1097
Note: MULTIMONETA? Edit
A system of multiple monopoly government moneys works less well in cyberspace because in cyberspace national borders are transparent.Read more at location 1103
The obvious solution is to establish a single standard of value, either by adopting one national currency, probably the dollar, possibly the euro, or by establishing a private standard such as the sort of commodity bundle described earlier. Read more at location 1106
Note: STANDARD Edit
The reason that everyone wants to use the same currency as his neighbors is that currency conversion is a nuisance. But currency conversion is arithmetic and computers do arithmetic fast and cheap. Perhaps, with some minor improvements in the interfaces on which we do online business, we could make the choice of currency irrelevant, permitting multiple standards to coexist. Read more at location 1107
Note: CONVERSIONI AUTOMATICHE Edit
As I write, the countries of Europe are in the final stages of replacing their multiple national currencies with the euro. If the picture I have just painted turns out to be correct, they may have finally achieved a common currency just as it was becoming unnecessary. Read more at location 1117
Note: LA BEFFA DELL EURO Edit
WILL IT HAPPEN? Read more at location 1121
Note: ACCADRÀ Edit
he was generally right about the way the world was moving, wrong about how fast it would get there. He correctly saw the logical pattern but failed to allow for the enormous inertia of human society. Read more at location 1123
Note: LE PREVISIONI DI ORWELL Edit
Chaum himself, working with the Mark Twain Bank of Saint Louis, attempted to get a semi-anonymous ecash into circulation - one that permitted one party to a transaction to be identified by joint action of the other party and the bank. The effort failed and was abandoned. One reason it has not happened is that online commerce has only very recently become large enough to justify it.Read more at location 1126
Note: FALLIMENTO DI CHAUM Edit
A second reason, I suspect but cannot prove, is that national governments are unhappy with the idea of a widely used money that they cannot controlRead more at location 1129
Note: OSTILITÀ DEI GOVERNI Edit
A third and closely related reason is that a truly anonymous ecash would eliminate a profitable form of law enforcement.Read more at location 1130
Note: EVASIONE FACILITATA Edit
There is no practical way to enforce money-laundering lawsRead more at location 1131
Note: ANTIRICICLAGGIO Edit
A final reason is that ecash is only useful to me if many other people are using it, which raises a problem in getting it started.Read more at location 1132
Note: BENE DI RETE PROBLEMI DI PARTENZA