mercoledì 18 gennaio 2017

5 privacy - Surveillance technology The Universal Panopticon Future Imperfect: Technology and Freedom in an Uncertain World by David D. Friedman

FIVE Read more at location 779
Note: 5@@@@@@@@@@@@@ tutto comincia in gb: e telecamere abbattono il crimine in modo prima impensabile david brin: transparent society. la società come un panopticon. la vera tesi: l alternativa al panopticon è un panopticon unidirezionale governativo. già oggi la tecnologia è strepitosa: la vita di molti potrebbe esserd ricostruitacora x ora. brin: già oggi la ns privacy nn esiste ma in modo asimmetrico: il governo ci scruta. nn possiamo tornare indietro. possiamo solo rendere il rapporto più simmetrico. telecamere ovunque: polizia pa comuni... chi custodisce i custodi? brin offre una soluzione pa soluzione brin è improbabile specie se il ctrl è deandato ai governi: ampie zone opache verrebbero lasciate soluzione brin: un tuffo nel passato. samoa. più educazione più dissimulazione il problema di brin: grande rischio. hitler e stalin sognano tanto potere altro problema: falsificazione dei video 3 tipi di privacy 1 quella che ci difende dai criminali 2 quella che protegge i criminali in fuga 3 quella relativa allo scambio 2 e 3 sono mali in genere. 1 è un bene. ma solo se la legge è giusta adam smith vs imposta sul reddito: viola la privacy nella ts di brin la criminal law sarebbe abolita? ratio della cl: se le indagini fossero tropo costose la vittima potrebbe rinunciare a xseguire lasciando molti impuniti. nella ts il costo delle indagini è azzerato. in passato la cl nn c era forse x l assenza di privacy Edit
trend began in Britain a decade ago, in the city of King's Lynn, where sixty remote controlled video cameras were installed to scan known "trouble spots," reporting directly to police headquarters. The resulting reduction in street crime exceeded all predictions;Read more at location 779
Note: x SUCCESSO INATTESO Edit
savings in patrol costsRead more at location 781
David Brin, The Transparent Society,Read more at location 784
Note: t Edit
In the early nineteenth century, Jeremy Bentham, one of the oddest and most original of English thinkers, designed a prison where every prisoner could be watched at all times. He called it the Panopticon.Read more at location 784
Note: x PANOPTICON Edit
In the United States, cameras have long been used in department stores to discourage shoplifting. More recently they have begun to be used to apprehend drivers who run red lights.Read more at location 787
Note: x USI TRAD DELLE TELECAMERE Edit
Consider the problem of controlling auto emissions.Read more at location 789
Note: x USI POSSIBILI. EMISSIONI Edit
One could build a much better system using modern technology. Set up unmanned detectors that measure emissions by shining a beam of light through the exhaust plume of a passing automobile; identify the automobile by a snapshot of the license plate.Read more at location 791
Note: c Edit
Another application of large-scale surveillance already being experimented with takes advantage of the fact that cell phones continually emit positioning cues,Read more at location 793
Note: x ALTRO ES CELL. TRAFFICO INCIDENTI PERCORSI Edit
By monitoring the signals from drivers' phones, it is possible to observe traffic flows. That is very useful information if you want to advise drivers to route around a traffic jam, or locate an accident by the resulting cluster of phones. Currently it is anonymous information, locating a phone but not identifying its owner. As technology evolves that may change. Read more at location 795
Note: c Edit
Note: c Edit
Few would consider it objectionable to have a police officer wandering around a park or standing on a street corner, keeping an eye out for purse snatchers and the like. Video cameras on poles are merely a more convenient wayRead more at location 797
Note: x ALL APPARENZA NESSUN PROBLEMA Edit
What's the problem?' Read more at location 800
A cop on the street corner may see you, he may even remember you, but he has no way of combining everything he sees with everything that every other cop sees and so reconstructing your daily life.Read more at location 800
Note: x LA TUA VITA CONOSCIUTA Edit
large fractions of your doings are an open book to anyone with access to the appropriate records.Read more at location 804
Note: c Edit
legal useRead more at location 806
A related issue is the use of surveillance technology, legally or illegally, by private parties.Read more at location 807
Lots of people own video cameras and those cameras are getting steadily smaller;Read more at location 807
Note: x PRIVATI Edit
The owner of a few dozen of them could collect a lot of information about his neighborsRead more at location 809
Note: c Edit
Of course technological development, in this area as in others, is likely to improve defense as well as offense.Read more at location 809
Note: x TECNO DI DIFESA Edit
We have already had court cases over whether it is or is not a search to deduce marijuana growing inside a house by using an infrared detector to measure its temperature from the outside.Read more at location 812
Note: x ES MARIU Edit
We already have technologies that make it possible to listen to a conversation by bouncing a laser beam off a windowRead more at location 813
Note: x ES CONVERSAZIONE Edit
Assume, for the moment, that the offense wins out over the defense - that preventing other people from spying on you becomes impractical. What options remain? Brin argues that privacy will no longer be one of them.Read more at location 815
Note: x TESI DI BRIN: LA PRIVACY È DESTINATA A SPARIRE Edit
He proposes as an alternative to privacy universal lack of privacy: the transparent society. The police can watch you - but someone is watching them. The entire system of video cameras, including cameras in every police station, is publicly accessible.Read more at location 817
Note: x UNICA DIFESA: TOTALIZZARE LA PERDITA Edit
Parents can keep an eye on their children, children on their parents, spouses on each other, employers on employees and vice versa, reporters on cops and politicians. Read more at location 819
Note: c Edit
The Upside of Transparency Read more at location 820
Note: t Edit
Qui custodes ipsos custodiet? "Who shall guard the guardians?" Read more at location 826
Note: x UN PROB CHE LA TS PUÓ RISOLVERE Edit
The transparent society offers a possible solution. Consider the Rodney King case. A group of policemen captured a suspect and beat him upRead more at location 826
Note: x CASO R.K Edit
Unfortunately for the police, a witness got the beating on videotape, with the result that several of the officers ended up in prison.Read more at location 828
Note: c Edit
In Brin's world, every law enforcement agent knows that he is on candid cameraRead more at location 830
Note: c Edit
But there are problems. Read more at location 831
Selective Transparency Read more at location 831
Note: t Edit
Brin's version does not seem likely. All of the information will be flowing through machinery controlled by some level of government.Read more at location 832
Note: x QUALCUNO RESTA IN POSIZIONE DI CTRL Edit
If police are setting up cameras in police stations, they can arrange for a few areas to be accidentally left uncovered.Read more at location 834
Note: x ES POLIZIA Edit
The situation gets more interesting in a world where technological progress enables private surveillance on a wide scale, so that every location where interesting things might happen, including every police station, has flies on the wall watching what happens and reporting back to their owners.Read more at location 836
Note: x TECNOLOGIA PIENAMENTE INVASIVA Edit
information is valuable to others, it can be shared. Governments might try to restrict such sharing. But in a world of strong privacy that will be hard to do, since in such a world information transactions will be invisible to outside parties.Read more at location 839
Note: x COMMERCIO DEI DATI E CRIPTAGGIO Edit
one can imagine a future where Brin's transparent society is produced not by government but by private surveillance. Read more at location 841
Note: x SORVEGLIANZA PDIVATA Edit
The information will be produced privately only if the producer can both use it himself and sell it to others. So a key requirement for a privately generated transparent society is a well-organized market for information." Read more at location 844
Note: x PRE REQUISITO. MERCATO DELL INFO Edit
The Downside of Transparency Read more at location 845
Note: t Edit
the transparent societyRead more at location 845
One might instead view it as a step into the past. The privacy that most of us take for granted is to a considerable degree a novelty, a product of rising incomes in recent centuries. In a world where many people shared a single residence, where a bed at the inn was likely to be shared by two or three strangers,Read more at location 846
Note: x ZERO PRIVACY. RITORNO AL PASSATO Edit
consider a primitive society such as Samoa. Multiple families share a single house -without walls.Read more at location 848
Note: x SAMOA Edit
the community is small enough to make gossipRead more at location 849
Note: c Edit
Infants are trained early on not to make noise. Adults rarely express hostility.'Read more at location 849
Note: c Edit
to communicate in code, to use words or expressions that your intimates will correctly interpret and others will not. For a milder version of the same approach, consider parents who talk to each other in a foreign language when they do not want their children to understandRead more at location 852
Note: x CODICI Edit
In Brin's future transparent society, many of us will become less willing to express our opinions of our boss, employees, ex-wife, or present husband in any public place. People will become less expressive and more self-contained, conversation bland or cryptic.Read more at location 855
Note: x IPOCRISIA Edit
WHAT IS PRIVACY AND WHY DO WE WANT IT? Read more at location 857
Note: t Edit
Think of "privacy" as shorthand for an individual's ability to control other people's access to information about him.Read more at location 858
Note: x DEF PRIVACY. CODICE Edit
I have almost complete privacy with regard to my own thoughts,Read more at location 859
Note: x INTROSPEZ Edit
If someone invented an easy and accurate way of reading minds, privacy would be radically reduced even if there were no change in my legal rights.'Read more at location 861
Note: x SCANNER. DIRITTI E FATTI Edit
The Case Against Privacy Read more at location 865
Note: t Edit
On net, is an increase in privacy good or bad?Read more at location 867
Note: x DOMANDA Edit
The reason I value my privacy is straightforward: Information about me in the hands of other people sometimes permits them to gain at my expense. They may do so by stealing my property - if, for example, they know when I will not be home.Read more at location 869
Note: x VANTAGGI PRIVACY Edit
Information about me in other people's hands may also benefit me - for example, the information that I am honest and competent. But privacy does not prevent that information from being available to them.Read more at location 872
Note: x VANTAGGI X CUI LA P. NN È NECESSARIA Edit
my privacy protects me from burglary - in which privacy produced a net benefit, since the gain to a burglar is normally less than the loss to his victim.Read more at location 874
Note: x CASO DI EFFETTO.POS Edit
One of the risks of bargaining is bargaining breakdown when a seller overestimates the price a buyer is willing to pay or a buyer makes the corresponding mistake the other way and the deal falls through, making both parties worse off than if they had each more accurately read the other.Read more at location 877
Note: x IL CASO DI BERGAIN BREAK Edit
Privacy makes it harder to know things about other peopleRead more at location 879
Note: x CONTRIB NEG PRIVACY Edit
It looks as though privacy produces, on average, a net loss in situations where parties are seeking information about each other in order to improve the terms of a voluntary transaction, since it increases the risk of bargaining breakdown.`Read more at location 880
Note: c Edit
In situations involving involuntary transactions, privacy produces a net gain if it is being used to protect other rights (assuming that those rights have been defined in a way that makes their protection desirable) and a net loss if it is being used to violate other rights (with the same assumption).Read more at location 882
Note: x CONC. BENEFICI NEGLI SCAMBI INVOL E COSTI NEGLI SCAMBI VOL Edit
Privacy and Government Read more at location 886
Note: t Edit
Governments engage in involuntary transactions on an enormously larger scale.Read more at location 890
Note: x GOVERNO E COERCIZIONE Edit
While I can protect myself from my fellow citizens with locks and burglar alarms, I can protect myself from government actors only by keeping information about me out of their hands.` Read more at location 891
Note: x PROTEGGERSI DAL GOV CON LA PRIVACY Edit
If government is the modern equivalent of Plato's philosopher-king, individual privacy simply makes it harder for government to do good. If, on the other hand, a government is merely a particularly large and well-organized criminal gang, stealing as much as it can from the rest of us, individual privacy against government as an unambiguously good thing.Read more at location 892
Note: x P. MALE SE IL GOV È BUONO Edit
Most Americans appear, judging by expressed views on privacy, to be close enough to the latter positionRead more at location 894
Note: x CHI AMA LA PRIVACY GIUDICA IMPLICIT IL GOV Edit
tax evasion. Read more at location 896
technology could enable a tyranny that Hitler or Stalin might envy. Even if we accept Brin's optimistic assumption that the citizens are as well informed about the police as the police are about the citizens, it is the police who have the guns.Read more at location 897
Note: x CON HITLER LA SOLUZIONE BRIN NN REGGE Edit
It does not follow that Brin's prescription is wrong. His argument, after all, is that privacy will simply not be an option, either because the visible benefits of surveillance are so large or because the technology will make it impossible to prevent it. If he is right, his transparent society may at least be better than the alternativeRead more at location 900
Note: x MA IL SUO ARG. È PIÙ ARTICOLATO: NEL SUO MONDO LA P. NN È UN OPZ Edit
SAY IT AIN'T SO Read more at location 902
Note: t Edit
My wife is suing me for divorce on grounds of adultery. In support of her claim, she presents videotapes, taken by hidden cameras, that show me making love to three different women, none of them her. My attorney asks for a postponement to investigate the new evidence. When the court reconvenes, he submits his own videotape. The jury observes my wife making love, consecutively, to Humphrey Bogart, Napoleon, her attorney, and the judge. When quiet is restored in the courtroom, my attorney presents the judge with the address of the video effects firm that produced the tape. Read more at location 903
Note: x PROBLEMA DEI FALSI. ESEMPIO DEL TRADIMENTO E DEL DIVORZIO Edit
There are possible technological fixes - ways of using encryption technology to build a camera that digitally signs its output, demonstrating that that sequence was taken by that camera at a particular time.Read more at location 912
Note: x SOLUZIONE TECNOLOGOCA Edit
SHOULD WE ABOLISH THE CRIMINAL LAW? Read more at location 919
Note: t DEPENALIZZAZIONE TOTALE Edit
criminal law and tort lawRead more at location 920
In the criminal system prosecution is controlled and funded by the state,Read more at location 921
Note: x RUOLO DELLO STATO NELLA GIUSTIZIA Edit
Criminal law provides a somewhat different range of punishmentsRead more at location 922
Note: c Edit
is there any good reason to have both? Would we, for example, be better off abolishing criminal law entirelyRead more at location 925
Note: x IL DUBBIO Edit
One argument against such a pure tort system is that some offenses are hard to detect. A victim may conclude that catching and prosecuting the offender costs more than it is worth, especially if the offender turns out not to have enough assets to pay substantial damages. Hence some categories of offense may routinely go unpunished. Read more at location 926
Note: x COSTO DELL INDAGINE E DETERRENZA Edit
In Brin's world that problem vanishes. Every mugging is on tape.Read more at location 928
Note: x LA SOC TRASP CAMBIA TUTTO Edit
The normal crime becomes very much like the normal tort - an auto accident, say, where (except in the case of hit and run, which is a crime) the identity of the party and many of the relevant facts are public information.Read more at location 930
Note: c Edit
If someone steals your car you check the video record to identify the thief, then sue for the carRead more at location 932
Note: c Edit
Like many radical ideas, this one looks less radical if one is familiar with the relevant history.Read more at location 933
Note: x STORIA Edit
Even as late as the eighteenth century, while the English legal system distinguished between torts and crimes, both were in practice privately prosecuted, usually by the victim."Read more at location 935
Note: x GB 700 Edit
One possible explanation for the shift to a modern, publicly prosecuted system of criminal law is that it was a response to the increasing anonymity that accompanied the shift to a more urban society in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century."-" Technologies that reverse that shift may justify a reversal of the accompanying legal changes. Read more at location 936
Note: x CAMBIO X AVENTO ANONIMIA E CAMBIO X AVVENTO TECNOLOGIA Edit
WHERE WORLDS COLLIDE Read more at location 938
Note: t Edit
It does no good to use strong encryption for my email if a video mosquito is sitting on the wall watching me type.Read more at location 939
Note: x COMBINAZIONE ENCRIPT E TS Edit
privacy in a transparent society requires some way of guarding the interface between my realspace body and cyberspace.Read more at location 940
Note: x CORPI E CIBER Edit
A low-tech solution is to type under a hood. A high-tech solution is some link between mind and machine that does not go through the fingersRead more at location 941
Note: x SOLUZIONI A BASSA E ALTA TECH Edit
conflict between realspace transparency and cyberspace privacyRead more at location 943
If we are sufficiently worried about other people hearing what we say, one solution is to encrypt face-to-face conversation. With suitable wireless gadgets, I talk into a throat mike or type on a virtual keyboardRead more at location 943
Note: x CONV WIRELESS Edit
We could end up in a world where physical actions are entirely public, information transactions entirely private.Read more at location 947
Note: x POSSIBILE MONDO DOMANI Edit
Private citizens will still be able to take advantage of strong privacy to locate a hit man, but hiring him may cost more than they are willing to pay, since in a sufficiently transparent world all murders are detected.Read more at location 948
Note: x CASO DEL KILLER Edit