domenica 5 marzo 2017

Why Online Education Works alex tabarrok

Why Online Education Works alex tabarrok
Citation (APA): (2017). Why Online Education Works alex tabarrok [Kindle Android version]. Retrieved from

Parte introduttiva
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 1
Why Online Education Works By Alex Tabarrok
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 6
Oxford University was founded in 1096, Cambridge in 1209. Harvard, a relative newcomer, was founded in 1636.
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Oxford in 2012 teaches students in ways remarkably similar to Oxford in 1096, seated students listening to professors in a classroom.
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facts are related; stasis in methods has led to stasis in status.
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Online education will change how universities teach;
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Advantages of Online Education
Nota - Posizione 12
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1) leverage, especially of the best teachers; 2) time savings; 3) individualized teaching
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my 15 minute talk has been watched nearly 700,000 times.
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teaching I did at TED dominates my entire teaching career: 700,000 views at 15 minutes each is equivalent to 175,000 student-hours of teaching, more than I have taught in my entire offline career.[ 1]
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Teaching is becoming relatively more expensive for the same reason that butlers have become relatively more expensive– butler productivity increased more slowly than productivity in other fields, so wages for butlers rose even as their output stagnated; as a result, the opportunity cost of butlers increased. The productivity of teaching, measured in, say, kilobytes transmitted from teacher to student per unit of time, hasn’t increased much.
Nota - Posizione 26
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Teaching has remained economic only because the value of each kilobyte transmitted has increased due to discoveries in (some) other fields.
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Online education, however, dramatically increases the productivity of teaching.
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The counter-argument is that there is an ineffable quality of the classroom
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what exactly this quality might be remains ineffable to me.
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Fields with greater physicality, not just sports and dance, but also experimental biology, physics, and chemistry will also require more in-classroom teaching with greater attention from a human being.
Nota - Posizione 35
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Until late college, physics is mostly teaching knowledge known since Newton.
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much education at the college level is already mass education
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let us accept that classroom teaching has some special value. We must still weigh this value against the productivity increases
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The best way to increase the quality of teaching is to increase the number of students taught by the best teachers.
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TED talk was among the best 15 minutes of my career. Knowing the potential size of the TED audience, I honed my talk and visuals with months of practice.
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Teaching today is like a stage play.
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it takes as much labor to produce the 100th viewing as it does to produce the first.
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Online education makes teaching more like a movie.
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Now consider quality. The average movie actor is a better actor than the average stage actor.
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If you were making a movie with a potential audience in the millions wouldn’t you hire the best actors?
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Is there something ineffably great about a live performance? Occasionally, but the greatest stage performances are seen by only a handful of people.
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the market for teachers will become more like the market for actors, a winner-take-all market
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greater inequality and very big payments at the top.
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A principal player on Broadway might earn $ 62,500 a year, perhaps twice what a minor player might earn.[ 3] One of the biggest stars in the world, Julia Roberts, made $ 35,000 a week, or $ 1.62 million in a 50-week year performing in Three Days of Rain. Nevertheless, her stage salary pales in comparison to her typical payment of $ 10– $ 20 million per movie for much less work.
Nota - Posizione 62
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movies are better in many respects than plays, but no one doubts that a taped play is worse in all respects than a live play.
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Many of the early online forays into education were simply taped lectures, boring, flat, and worse
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 67
Time Savings
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surprised to discover that we could teach a full course in less than half the lecture time of an offline course.
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online lectures need not be repetitive.
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Dale Carnegie’s advice
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“tell the audience what you’re going to say, say it; then tell them what you’ve said”
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if you repeat whenever 20% of the audience doesn’t understand something, that means that 80% of the audience hear something twice
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Highly inefficient.
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Carnegie’s advice is dead wrong for an online audience.
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Different medium, different messaging.
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In an online lecture it pays to be concise.
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Online, the student is in control and can choose when and what to repeat.
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students proceed as fast as their capabilities can
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even more savings by eliminating the fixed time-costs of attending
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many of my students will have driven half an hour
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online lectures there is no looking for parking!
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Time Shifting
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In the online world, consumers need not each consume at the same time,
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suppliers need not produce at the moment of consumption.
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It’s costly to coordinate consumers and suppliers,
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Despite caffeination, by 9: 30 pm fatigue sets in,
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it makes little sense for me to try to teach complex ideas after 9: 30 pm.
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Flexible time scheduling reduces the costs of coordination
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Online education can also break the artificial lecture length of 50– 90 minutes.
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experts say that adult attention span is 10– 15 minutes
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span has declined in the Internet era.[ 4]
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it is clear that the standard lecture length has not been determined by optimal learning time but by the high fixed costs of traveling to school.
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the natural length of a lecture is probably not that different from the length of a typical popular music track or television segment.
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Individualized Teaching and New Technologies
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classroom experience provides greater opportunity for personalized learning.
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offline experience is often not a classroom of 4-9 students, but a classroom of over 100.
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conventional wisdom is that the classroom allows for more questions.
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OB 2
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online space is a better place both for asking questions and for interacting with professors
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students from all over the world can ask questions online.
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constrained by the costs of coordination to begin and end at a time fixed in advance.
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peer-learning, for students to answer their own questions.
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Questions are also more powerful in the online world.
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the teacher is held to a higher standard.
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If I make an error in my offline class, chances are no one will catch it.
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future is lectures plus intelligent,
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The future of online education is adaptive assessment,
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Incorrect answers are not random but betray specific assumptions and patterns of thought. Analysis of answers, therefore, can be used to guide students to exactly that lecture that needs to be reviewed and understood to achieve mastery of the material.
Nota - Posizione 125
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Computer-adaptive learning will be as if every student has their own professor on demand— much
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Surprisingly, the computer will make learning less standardized and robotic.
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we know that improving teacher productivity is very difficult, which is why teaching methods haven’t changed in millennia.
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Bigger markets increase the incentive to research
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Randomized controlled trials, which are very expensive in the offline world, become very cheap in the online world.
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Consider two methods of teaching a concept. Which works best?
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shorten the time from learning what works to implementing what works.
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better teaching methods can diffuse through fewer teachers
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The College Experience
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The college experience is about much more than learning. Online education will not replace the two Olympic-sized swimming pools at my university, the modern exercise facilities, the coffee shop, or the restaurants.
Nota - Posizione 156
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viewing online lectures at home and doing “homework” in-class— is
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The university will continue to be a place for young people to socialize
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socialization and education functions will become more distinct.
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parents and taxpayers may decide that they would rather not pay for four five years of socialization
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Online Education Has Already Met the Market Test
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unexpected success of Stanford’s free online course on artificial intelligence. Taught by Peter Norvig and Sebastian Thrun in 2011, this course enrolled more students than the entire Stanford student body.
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Educational startups like Coursera, Udacity and, of course, MRUniversity promoted the idea of MOOCs, massive online open courses.
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elites, however, have been behind the curve.
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Private, for-profit universities such as the University of Phoenix and Ashford University were the pioneers of online education.
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The for-profits offered courses that appealed to women, particularly those with children, to ethnic minorities and to adults 25– 44 years old who valued all of the flexibility and time-savings that online education offered.
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especially successful in the graduate market,
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shorter and pursued by adults less interested in the socializing
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audience that traditional universities had mostly ignored,
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Online Education and the Developing World
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developing world is increasing education at a dramatic rate.
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Over the next 15 years or so India plans to increase the number of students attending university from 12 million to over 30 million; a goal that will require at least 1,000 new universities. China has already increased the number of entering university students from 1 million in 1998 to over 6 million today.
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will the developing world adopt the Oxford model of 1096
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The Great Unbundling
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development, delivery, assessment, and credentialing.
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Already many universities now offer credit for courses taken at other universities,
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We already have some experience with unbundling credentialing in the market for lawyers
Segnalibro - Posizione 222
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A Response to Participants By Alex Tabarrok
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advantages: Leverage of the best professors teaching more students. Large time savings from less repetition in lectures (students in control of what to repeat) and from lower fixed costs (no need to drive to university). Greater flexibility in when lectures are consumed (universities open 24 hours a day) and in the lecture format (no need to limit to 50 minutes). Greater scope for productivity improvements as capital substitutes for labor and greater incentive to invest in productivity when the size of the market increases. Greater scope for randomized controlled trials of educational strategies thus more learning about what works in education.
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Siva Vaidhyanathan
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classroom is special,
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“I would find this more persuasive if I had not taken many traditional college courses myself.”
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large majority of college teachers in the United States today are adjuncts,
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try ideas on for size, gently criticize others, challenge authority, and drive conversations in new directions?
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Carole Cadwalladr, a reporter from the Observer writing about an online course in genetics:
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And that’s when I have my being-blown-away moment. The traffic is astonishing. There are thousands of people asking— and answering— questions about dominant mutations and recombination. And study groups had spontaneously grown up: a Colombian one, a Brazilian one, a Russian one. There’s one on Skype, and some even in real life too. And they’re so diligent! If you are a vaguely disillusioned teacher, or know one, send them to Coursera: these are people who just want to learn.
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Rather than contrasting offline with online, I am more interested in how online can complement
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I’d also like to see more comparisons and more empirical evidence.
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How large does the typical classroom have to be before an online classroom is superior?
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My answers are that a philosophy seminar with five students is going to be better face-to-face. In a class of thirty, I’d take a good online class
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Where is the dividing line and why?
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Some 30% of students today are already enrolled in an online course.
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What should students with full or part-time jobs do?
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Which students and which classes should go online?
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Blanket statements don’t seem useful here.
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Econ 101 would work well online. Plenty of math and stats classes will work well online
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The Department of Education conducted a meta-analysis
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found: Students in online conditions performed modestly better, on average, than those learning the same material through traditional face-to-face instruction. Instruction combining online and face-to-face elements had a larger advantage relative to purely face-to-face instruction than did purely online instruction. Effect sizes were larger for studies in which the online instruction was collaborative or instructor-directed than in those studies where online learners worked independently. The effectiveness of online learning approaches appears quite broad across different content and learner types. Online learning appeared to be an effective option for both undergraduates (mean effect of + 0.30, p
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Shallow compared to what? Compared to the best offline course at MIT?
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Again, the issue is on what margin.
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Or is Vaidhyanathan claiming a link between the medium and message?
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list some MOOCs and their teachers;
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Sebastian Thrun, father of the Google chauffeured vehicle, on artificial intelligence; Sergey Brin, founder of Google, on search algorithms; Anant Agarwal, winner of MIT’s Smullin and Jamieson prizes for teaching, on computer science.
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(FYI, the general principle— the best wants to work with the best— is call