venerdì 3 marzo 2017

INTERLUDIO POLITICA E EMPATIA - Against Empathy: The Case for Rational Compassion by Paul Bloom

Against Empathy: The Case for Rational Compassion by Paul Bloom
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You have 40 notes
Last annotated on March 3, 2017
INTERLUDE The Politics of EmpathyRead more at location 1540
Note: INTERLUDE@@@@@@@@@@@@ Edit
Many people think of empathy as associated with a cluster of views that are liberal, left-wing,Read more at location 1544
these include being in favor of gay marriage, stricter gun control, increased access to abortion, more open borders, and government programs such as universal health care.Read more at location 1545
Note: x POLITICHE EMPATICHE Edit
George Lakoff,Read more at location 1548
Behind every progressive policy lies a single moral value: empathy.”Read more at location 1549
Perhaps more empathic people tend to adopt more liberal views than conservative views; or maybe being exposed to liberal ideas makes one more empathic, while exposure to conservative views makes one less.Read more at location 1550
Note: x DILEMMA DEL DOPPIO NESSO Edit
There are conservative positions that are deeply grounded in empathyRead more at location 1559
my attack on empathy is nonpartisan.Read more at location 1561
what it means to be liberal/progressive/left-wingRead more at location 1564
Note: t Edit
those who want greater legal protection for sexual and ethnic minorities, who worry about the proliferation of guns, who favor legal access to abortion, who support diversity programs in universities, who support universal health care, and so on.Read more at location 1574
Note: x LIBERAL Edit
commonsense categories of liberal and conservative do a surprisingly good jobRead more at location 1577
gun control have nothing to do with views on gay marriage,Read more at location 1579
Note: ALL APPARENZA Edit
this sort of crude assessment works just fine at predicting all sorts of specific views.Read more at location 1581
five issues: Stricter gun control laws in the United States Universal health care Raising income taxes for persons in the highest income-tax bracket Affirmative action for minorities Stricter carbon emission standards to reduce global warmingRead more at location 1582
Note: x ISSUE X CAPIRE CHI STA A DS E A SIN Edit
these views hang together;Read more at location 1586
some believe that a political continuum from left to right might be universalRead more at location 1589
John Stuart MillRead more at location 1590
political systems have “a party of order or stability and a party of progress or reform.”Read more at location 1591
Note: x I DUE PARTITI DI MILL Edit
Ralph Waldo EmersonRead more at location 1591
“the two parties which divide the state, the party of conservatism and that of innovation, are very old, and have disputed the possession of the world ever since it was made,”Read more at location 1591
Note: x EMERSON SUL BIPARTITISMO Edit
such “irreconcilable antagonism must have a correspondent depth of seat in the human condition.”Read more at location 1593
Note: c Edit
matters of reproduction, relations with out-groups, suitable punishment for in-group miscreants, and traditional/innovative lifestyles.”Read more at location 1595
Note: x DOVE È PIÙ FORTE IL DIVARIO Edit
free trade or deregulation of banks, are less predictableRead more at location 1597
correlation between political views and party membership is about 0.5 to 0.6.Read more at location 1600
Note: SORPRESA Edit
particularly at the more local level,Read more at location 1602
So are liberals more empathic? It seems so.Read more at location 1607
Barack Obama, who talks more about empathy than any president in history,Read more at location 1607
Bill Clinton,Read more at location 1608
“I feel your pain.”Read more at location 1608
Democrats use the language of empathy with some fluidity.Read more at location 1609
Hilary ClintonRead more at location 1610
The most important thing each of us can do is to try even harder to see the world through our neighbors’ eyes ….Read more at location 1610
Note: x HILARY Edit
empathy is what ties together the policies that liberals endorse.Read more at location 1613
relationship between politics and empathy,Read more at location 1614
To the extent that citizens identify with the distresses of others, they will prefer to assuage the distress that they witness.Read more at location 1614
Note: x LA RELAZIO TRA E. E POLITICA Edit
invocation of government power on behalf of the perceived victims.Read more at location 1616
‘bleeding hearts,’ we hypothesize, would prefer liberal policyRead more at location 1616
you should help people in needRead more at location 1618
loosening immigration restrictions or raising the minimum wage,Read more at location 1618
that group are motivated by empathy—Read more at location 1619
Mitt Romney, was ridiculed for saying, “I like being able to fire peopleRead more at location 1620
it is an almost comically unempathic positionRead more at location 1623
Many liberals would sum this all up by saying that they are the caring ones, while conservatives are vindictive, cruel, punitive, and unfeeling. Liberals want to increase the minimum wage because they care about poor people; conservatives don’t. Liberals want stricter gun laws because they worry about the victims of gun violence; conservatives don’t. Liberals favor abortion rights because they care about women, while conservatives want to restrict women’s freedom.Read more at location 1623
Note: X PUNTO DI VISTA LIBERAL Edit
Lakoff’s analysis of the antiabortion position:Read more at location 1627
Conservatives think of society as an authoritarian traditional family, and when it comes to abortion, “The very idea that a women can make such a decision—a decision over her own reproduction, over her own body, and over a man’s progeny—contradicts and represents a threat to the idea of a strict father morality.”Read more at location 1627
Note: x LAKOF SUI PRO LIFE Edit
This is conservatism as seen by its worst enemies.Read more at location 1630
conservatives themselves may resonate to being less empathic.Read more at location 1630
they accuse liberals of being softheadedRead more at location 1631
Winston Churchill:Read more at location 1632
“If you’re not a liberal at twenty you have no heart; if you’re not a conservative at forty you have no brain.”Read more at location 1632
Note: x CHURCHILL Edit
the importance of nonempathic moral values, such as greater emphasis on tradition,Read more at location 1633
emphasis on individual rights and freedoms.Read more at location 1634
skepticism about the extent of human kindness,Read more at location 1635
Note: CONSERVATOR Edit
unreliability and corruptibility of state institutions.Read more at location 1636
conservatives worry that these never work out as planned.Read more at location 1638
Jonathan Haidt,Read more at location 1639
theory that humans possess a set of distinct moral foundations—Read more at location 1640
care, fairness, loyalty, authority, and sanctity.Read more at location 1640
Note: X FONDAMENTI DELLA MORALE Edit
liberals emphasize care and fairnessRead more at location 1641
conservatives care about all these foundations more or less equally.Read more at location 1642
This is why, according to Haidt, conservatives care more than liberals do about respect for the national flag (as this is associated with loyalty),Read more at location 1642
children’s obedience toward parents (authority),Read more at location 1643
chastity (sanctity).Read more at location 1644
nonempathic valuesRead more at location 1644
Finally, there is research on the actual mind-sets of liberals and conservatives.Read more at location 1645
Note: t Edit
Davis’s “empathic concern” scale and Baron-Cohen’s “empathizer” scale.Read more at location 1647
Note: SCALE Edit
I complained about both of these scales in an earlier chapter,Read more at location 1647
they probably do capture somethingRead more at location 1650
self-defined liberals are significantly more empathic than self-defined conservatives on both scales.Read more at location 1650
being liberal is more attractive to empathic people,Read more at location 1652
women are statistically more likely to be liberalRead more at location 1652
women tend to be somewhat more empathic than men.Read more at location 1653
if males were as empathic as females, the gender gap in politics would almost entirely disappear.Read more at location 1654
But this connection between political ideology and empathy is not as strong as it might first appear.Read more at location 1656
Note: t Edit
Michael DukakisRead more at location 1658
Al GoreRead more at location 1658
present themselves as, rational technocrats,Read more at location 1658
Ronald Reagan—are remarkably good at presenting themselves as empathically connected to others.Read more at location 1659
Consider that many policies associated with liberalism are also endorsed by libertarians,Read more at location 1660
Note: POLITICHE POCO EMPATICHE A SINISTRA Edit
the least empathic individuals of allRead more at location 1662
Note: LIBERTARI Edit
gay marriage, the legalization of some drugs, and the militarization of the police. If such policies are grounded in empathy, it is mysterious why the least empathic people on earth would also endorse them.Read more at location 1662
Note: X POLITICHE COMUNI Edit
certain conservative policies also draw upon empathic concernsRead more at location 1664
So liberals in favor of open borders may try to evoke empathy for the suffering of refugees, while their conservative counterparts will talk about Americans who might lose their jobs.Read more at location 1665
Note: x IMMIGRAZ E L EMPATIA CONTRAPPOSTA Edit
conservatives empathize with police officersRead more at location 1667
Note: SCONTRO DI PIAZZA Edit
owners of small businesses who have lost their livelihoods in riotsRead more at location 1668
Political debates typically involve a disagreement not over whether we should empathize, but over who we should empathize with.Read more at location 1670
Note: X IL DIFETTO DELLA POLITICA. ESSENZA POLITICA Edit
Take gun control.Read more at location 1671
focusing on the victimsRead more at location 1671
Note: LIBERAL Edit
those who have their guns taken away from them, now defenselessRead more at location 1672
Note: CONS Edit
Smart politicians appreciate this symmetry. When Barack Obama was talking to the Denver Police Academy, he recounted that, while campaigning in Iowa, Michelle Obama told him this: “You know, if I was living out on a farm in Iowa, I’d probably want a gun, tooRead more at location 1672
Note: x E IL POLITICO CI MARCIA Edit
clash of empathic concerns is yet more empathy.Read more at location 1677
Or take concerns about the use of tortureRead more at location 1679
Note: ALTRO ESEMPIO Edit
It might seem that empathy can favor only one sideRead more at location 1680
concerns about the suffering of those who are tortured.Read more at location 1680
when asked to define torture, Cheney gave this example:Read more at location 1682
an American citizen on a cell phone making a last call to his four young daughters shortly before he burns to death in the upper levels of the Trade Center in New York City on 9/11.”Read more at location 1683
Note: x CHANEY DEFINISCE LA TORTURA Edit
consider concerns about certain sorts of expression.Read more at location 1685
Liberals worry about the offense caused by racist and sexistRead more at location 1686
conservatives worry about the offense caused by speech that belittles traditional values.Read more at location 1686
common cause in battling pornography.Read more at location 1688
Both protest the ridicule of certain esteemed figuresRead more at location 1688
quick to demand that people be fired,Read more at location 1689
Even the most zealous defender of free speech believes in some restrictions:Read more at location 1691
empathy is always on the side of the censor.Read more at location 1693
Note: IL PROBLEMA Edit
It seems mighty cold-blooded to tell someone who has been really hurt that they should just suck it up.Read more at location 1695
The case for free speech, in contrast, is pretty unempathic.Read more at location 1696
(the world is better off in the long run if all ideas, even bad ones, get an airing),Read more at location 1697
legal context.Read more at location 1702
Note: t Edit
Obama, have argued for the need for empathic judges,Read more at location 1702
bias the legal system in favor of liberal causes.Read more at location 1703
Note: PAURA Edit
In his confirmation hearing, Clarence Thomas suggested that his unique contribution as a justice would be that he “can walk in the shoes of the people who are affected by what the Court does,” while Samuel Alito, in his own hearing, noted that “When I get a case about discrimination, I have to think about people in my own family who suffered discrimination because of their ethnic background or because of religion or because of gender, and I do take that into account.”Read more at location 1707
Note: x L EMPATA DEI GIUD DI DESTRA Edit
Alito’s dissent in a free speech case involving protesting at military funeralsRead more at location 1711
Alito let his empathy motivate a decisionRead more at location 1714
certain perspectives associated with liberal philosophies aren’t that empathic at all.Read more at location 1716
Note: t Edit
best example of this is climate change,Read more at location 1716
empathy favors doing nothing.Read more at location 1717
empathy drives concerns about people in the here and now.Read more at location 1722
the cost of a politics of empathy is massive.Read more at location 1726
Note: t Edit
failures to enact prudent long-term policiesRead more at location 1726