sabato 4 marzo 2017

Marriage and the Market-- justin wolfers

Notebook per
Marriage and the Market--
Citation (APA): (2017). Marriage and the Market-- [Kindle Android version]. Retrieved from

Parte introduttiva
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 1
Marriage and the Market By Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 6
marriage has historically been the product of the economic environment
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 7
family institutions are dynamic,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 8
re-frame Coontz’s careful history of the family in the language of economics,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 10
families have always played a role in “filling in” where incomplete market institutions
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 11
families found ways to enforce agreements among kin.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 12
an organizing device
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 13
marriage also provided the key means to strategic “mergers”— a way to form alliances and boost the financial welfare
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 14
prior to the expansion of the welfare state, the family had been a key provider of insurance,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 15
support each other “through richer, through poorer, in sickness and in health,”
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 16
Before modern credit markets arrived, access to capital was often facilitated through family ties.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 17
goods and services, such as freshly cooked meals, or childcare, were historically not sold in the market sector.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 20
households came to involve the specialization of one spouse, typically the husband, in the market, and the other in the domestic sphere.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 22
the modern corporation has come to supplant the family firm as the key unit of production.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 23
social insurance has spread greater security to many but has reduced the role of the family
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 27
With cheap clothes available at Wal-Mart, it makes more sense for women to earn money to buy clothes than to make them at home.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 29
dishwashers, washing machines, and the more recent invention of the Roomba have made housework so easy
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 31
the costs of being such a specialist have risen.
Nota - Posizione 31
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 31
Improvements in the technology of birth control have made investing in a wife’s human capital a better bet,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 33
rising life expectancy,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 34
average woman will now spend less than a quarter of her adult life with young children
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 34
increasing the number of potential years in the labor force,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 35
Rising life expectancy also reduces the centrality of children
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 36
live together for decades after children
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 38
modern marriage is somewhat less child-centric
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 39
a shift from the family as a forum for shared production, to shared consumption.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 40
modern marriage is about love and companionship.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 41
enjoying a movie or a hobby together,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 42
attending the same church,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 42
joint project of bringing up children.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 43
key today is consumption complementarities
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 43
more enjoyable when shared
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 44
“hedonic marriage”.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 44
So is marriage doomed?
Nota - Posizione 45
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 45
Marriage in which one person specializes
Nota - Posizione 45
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 45
is indeed doomed.
Nota - Posizione 45
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 50
Rising productivity has given all Americans more leisure time
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 50
As consumption increases, so too will the demand to have someone with whom to share
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 51
Thus marriage isn’t dead, it is, again, transforming.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 53
“opposites attract,”
Nota - Posizione 53
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 55
likes are increasingly marrying
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 55
isn’t surprising that we see increasing political pressure to expand marriage to same-sex couples.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 60
Many have cited high and rising divorce rates as pointing to the collapse of the family,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 60
the high divorce rates among those marrying in the 1970s reflected a transition,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 61
many married the right partner for the old specialization model
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 62
Divorce rates have actually been falling since reaching a peak thirty years ago.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 63
those who have married in recent years have been more likely to stay together than their parents’ generation.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 64
divorce has been falling for three decades
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 66
demographics of marriage
Nota - Posizione 66
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 66
College-educated women used to be the least likely to marry, and today they are about as likely as those without a college degree to marry.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 67
Several decades ago, a woman earning a graduate degree was unlikely to find the old specialization model of marriage to be useful, and many therefore chose to remain single.
Nota - Posizione 68
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 68
hedonic marriage is likely more enticing for educated women.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 69
decline in marriage among less-educated women
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 74
Just as we have deregulated the economy so that firms and businesses can deal with changing conditions, the long-run trend in U.S. family policy has been to deregulate the marriage market, and the book of rules governing who can get married or divorced where and when has become much thinner.
Nota - Posizione 76
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 79
Divorce and Children: What Do We Know? By Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 85
disentangle causation from correlation.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 86
we know that divorced people are more likely to drink, use drugs, have lower income, and be less happy.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 87
did divorce cause these bad things or did these bad things in fact cause the divorce?
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 88
reverse causation
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 91
For example, when a man is laid-off the couple is more likely to divorce in subsequent years.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 92
those divorcing are less happy than the average married person.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 94
The second difficulty is the possibility of a third factor that is influencing both
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 96
It is clear that children from divorced households fare worse along a range of outcomes than those from intact households. However, this does not imply that these children would be better off if the divorce had never occurred.
Nota - Posizione 97
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 98
households that end up divorced are different from those that do not.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 99
Even if the divorce is simply the result of the selfish, narcissistic preferences of the parents, it is likely that kids being raised by such adults will have worse outcomes
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 103
divorce does not happen randomly in the population.
Nota - Posizione 103
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 103
divorce occurs in couples who are typically worse
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 105
while love may conquer some adversities, it flourishes without them.
Nota - Posizione 105
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 106
What are the differences between married and separated life
Nota - Posizione 107
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 108
asking whether the children of divorced parents would have been better off if their parents had not divorced,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 109
the empirical research provides little evidence
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 110
Research by Mark Hoekstra at the University of Pittsburgh followed families on the brink of divorce comparing those who filed and then reconciled with those who filed and then divorced. He found little difference in the academic and behavioral outcomes of the kids in each of these types of families.
Nota - Posizione 112
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 114
evidence that preventing divorce would benefit children is weak at best.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 114
little evidence that the government can do a better job determining which marriages will be best for the children,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 115
reasonable default rule might be to leave Mom and Dad to make the best decisions for their kids.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 118
(De-) Regulating the Family By Betsey Stevenson and Justin
Nota - Posizione 122
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 126
To be clear about terminology, by “deregulation,” we are referring to the diminution in the role that government plays in deciding who can marry, who can divorce, and under what circumstances.
Nota - Posizione 127
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 128
repeal laws restricting marriage between racial groups.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 128
eliminated nationwide in 1967 by the Supreme Court
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 131
in this decision the Supreme Court stated that marriage was a fundamental right.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 132
Soon thereafter laws were struck down barring those deemed “unsuitable,” from marrying.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 133
Texas had refused to grant a marriage license to anyone behind on child support payments.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 134
eliminated many of the legal distinctions that had previously given children born in marriage greater rights
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 135
In the 1950s, most states required evidence of marital fault before allowing a marriage to be dissolved.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 140
many states, somewhat unintentionally, moved to allowing unilateral divorce-a
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 142
some states changed laws governing property division subsequent to divorce.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 145
Most of the research has focused on the change in divorce laws.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 145
the move to unilateral divorce provides a useful “natural experiment”,
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 146
compare family outcomes in states that changed their divorce laws at different points in time.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 148
research finds that restricting access to divorce by requiring evidence of fault or mutual consent had little impact on the divorce rate.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 150
Most couples, even in the midst of acrimony, want to find a way to reconcile
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 152
it is easy to imagine that most people do not want to stay in a marriage when their spouse really wants out.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 156
debate in the empirical literature was whether unilateral divorce had no effect on the divorce rate or a small effect
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 159
the movement to unilateral divorce laws caused an important decline in domestic violence and female suicide.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 168
Research has shown that couples who marry under unilateral divorce invest less in their marriage-an
Nota - Posizione 169
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 169
one of the investments that they cut back on, or at least postpone making, is children. This means that children are less likely to experience a divorce
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 171
since the late 1960s the average number of children involved in each divorce has fallen sharply.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 173
Property settlement laws can take fault into account even when fault is not needed to grant the divorce.
Evidenzia (giallo) - Posizione 175
Couples can write explicit contracts