martedì 25 aprile 2017

Ho ragione!!!

Where Does Morality Come From? The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion by Jonathan Haidt
Non solo crediamo di aver ragione. Vogliamo aver ragione, lo desideriamo, ci serve, ne abbiamo un bisogno fisico, fa parte della nostra natura (sociale), della natura della nostra mente. Essere contraddetti ci fa male.
Questo sempre, ma soprattutto in campo etico.
***
Prima storia disgustosa: il tuo cane viene investito e tu te lo mangi...
... A family’s dog was killed by a car in front of their house. They had heard that dog meat was delicious, so they cut up the dog’s body and cooked it and ate it for dinner. Nobody saw them do this...
Seconda storia disgustosa: ti compri un pollo al supermercato e a casa lo stupri...
... A man goes to the supermarket once a week and buys a chicken. But before cooking the chicken, he has sexual intercourse with it.
Perché condannare chi agisce così? In fondo non fa del male a nessuno. Tuttavia, noi abbiamo bisogno di condannare. Perché? Mistero fitto.
Di certo il disgusto  ha una matrice culturale: in Corea mangiarsi il cane è accettabile...
... Understanding the simple fact that morality differs around the world, and even within societies, is the first step toward understanding your righteous mind...
***
Dove originano i nostri sentimenti morali?
Ieri la psicologia morale era una branca di quella evolutiva: il bambino veniva messo sotto la lente per studiare l'insorgere dei comportamenti morali...
... In 1987, moral psychology was a part of developmental psychology. Researchers focused on questions such as how children develop in their thinking about rules, especially rules of fairness. The big question behind this research was: How do children come to know right from wrong? Where does morality come from?...
Le ipotesi in competizione sembrerebbero essere comunque essenzialmente due: natura o cultura?...
... There are two obvious answers to this question: nature or nurture. If you pick nature, then you’re a nativist... But if you believe that moral knowledge comes from nurture, then you are an empiricist...
Poi c'è il razionalismo. Per i razionalisti il bambino impara il bene e il male da sé non appena il suo cervello è pronto...
... But this is a false choice, and in 1987 moral psychology was mostly focused on a third answer: rationalism, which says that kids figure out morality for themselves...
Tra i razionalisti il personaggio centrale è Jean Piaget, con la sua analogia dei serbatoi d'acqua a volume differente: il precetto morale si calcola, esattamente come le quantità d’acqua...
... Piaget focused on the kinds of errors kids make. For example, he’d put water into two identical drinking glasses and ask kids to tell him if the glasses held the same amount of water. (Yes.) Then he’d pour the contents of one of the glasses into a tall skinny glass and ask the child to compare the new glass to the one that had not been touched. Kids younger than six or seven usually say that the tall skinny glass now holds more water, because the level is higher. They don’t understand that the total volume of water is conserved when it moves from glass to glass. He also found that it’s pointless for adults to explain the conservation of volume to kids. The kids won’t get it until they reach an age (and cognitive stage) when their minds are ready for it. And when they are ready, they’ll figure it out for themselves just by playing with cups of water. In other words, the understanding of the conservation of volume wasn’t innate, and it wasn’t learned from adults. Kids figure it out for themselves, but only when their minds are ready and they are given the right kinds of experiences... Piaget argued that children’s understanding of morality is like their understanding of those water glasses: we can’t say that it is innate, and we can’t say that kids learn it directly from adults...
La morale ce la costruiamo noi e le autorità morali sono un ingombro inutile, compresa la famiglia.
Il nostro cervello etico è come un bruco in attesa di metamorfosi...
... We grow into our rationality as caterpillars grow into butterflies. If the caterpillar eats enough leaves, it will (eventually)...
Per i razionalisti il ragionamento etico è la guida.
Lawrence Kohlberg: il successore di Piaget.
LK e i suoi 6 stadi di sviluppo...
... Kohlberg found a six-stage progression in children’s reasoning about the social world, and this progression matched up well with the stages Piaget had found in children’s reasoning about the physical world...
Lo stadio primitivo: convenzionalismo. Qui l'immoralità non fa vittime, la purezza è tutto...
... Kohlberg called the first two stages the “pre-conventional” level of moral judgment, and they correspond to the Piagetian stage at which kids judge the physical world by superficial features...
Poi c'è il legalismo...
... But during elementary school, most children move on to the two “conventional” stages, becoming adept at understanding and even manipulating rules and social conventions. This is the age of petty legalism...
Poi, dopo la pubertà, gli stadi più maturi in cui si chiede "perché?". Ora, solo in presenza di una vittima c'è un colpevole...
... After puberty, right when Piaget said that children become capable of abstract thought, Kohlberg found that some children begin to think for themselves about the nature of authority, the meaning of justice, and the reasons behind rules and laws. In the two “post-conventional” stages, adolescents still value honesty and respect rules and laws, but now they sometimes justify dishonesty or lawbreaking in pursuit of still higher goods, particularly justice...
L'adolescenza porta con sé la razionalità morale e la razionalità consiste nel liberarsi dai tabù della purezza per condannare solo chi danneggia il prossimo...
... Kohlberg painted an inspiring rationalist image of children as “moral philosophers” trying to work out coherent ethical systems for themselves...
***
Sia come sia una cosa è certa: il razionalismo etico era ben visto dai liberali. Le teorie di Piaget e seguaci ebbero un supporto politico....
... But there’s a deeper reason so many young psychologists began to study morality from a rationalist perspective, and this was Kohlberg’s second great innovation: he used his research to build a scientific justification for a secular liberal moral order...
LK: il soggetto etico maturo sa mettersi nei panni altrui e ciò che desidera innanzitutto è non danneggiare il prossimo...
... Kohlberg’s most influential finding was that the most morally advanced kids (according to his scoring technique) were those who had frequent opportunities for role taking—for putting themselves into another person’s shoes and looking at a problem from that person’s perspective....
L'apprendimento personale è tutto, l'autorità morale un intralcio. Più esempi, meno prediche...
... Piaget and Kohlberg both thought that parents and other authorities were obstacles to moral development. If you want your kids to learn about the physical world, let them play with cups and water; don’t lecture them about the conservation of volume. And if you want your kids to learn about the social world, let them play with other kids and resolve disputes; don’t lecture them about the Ten Commandments. And, for heaven’s sake, don’t force them to obey God or their teachers or you. That will only freeze them at the conventional level...
L'uomo e l'umanità progredisce verso la regola aurea: non fare agli altri ciò che non vuoi venga fatto a te...
... Kohlberg’s timing was perfect. Just as the first wave of baby boomers was entering graduate school, he transformed moral psychology into a boomer-friendly ode to justice, and he gave them a tool to measure children’s progress toward the liberal ideal...
Dal 1970 al 1990 il paradigma dominante è stato questo.
***
Un'altra figura: Elliot Turiel ET.
È questo autore, di fatto, a mettere al centro il "danno". Di più: le regole sono di due tipi, morali (danno) e convenzionali (purezza)...
... Children construct their moral understanding on the bedrock of the absolute moral truth that harm is wrong. Specific rules may vary across cultures, but in all of the cultures Turiel examined, children still made a distinction between moral rules and conventional rules...
ET, di fatto, si allinea a KL...
... Turiel’s account of moral development differed in many ways from Kohlberg’s, but the political implications were similar: morality is about treating individuals well. It’s about harm and fairness (not loyalty, respect, duty, piety, patriotism, or tradition)...
***
Facciamoci un giro per il pianeta, il modello Piaget non spiega niente, la purezza è il paradigma etico fondante pressoché ovinque. Gli Azande...
... I read a book on witchcraft among the Azande of Sudan.17 It turns out that witchcraft beliefs arise in surprisingly similar forms in many parts of the world, which suggests either that there really are witches or (more likely) that there’s something about human minds that often generates this cultural institution...
L'elemento soprannaturale ha una funzione ordinativa (sociale) più che conoscitiva...
... That was my first hint that groups create supernatural beings not to explain the universe but to order their societies...
L'etica occidentale sembrerebbe essere un 'eccezione...
... our lack of rules about what the anthropologists call “purity” and “pollution.” Contrast us with the Hua of New Guinea, who have developed elaborate networks of food taboos that govern what men and women may eat...
Altrove la convenzione non è vissuta come tale ma posiede una valenza morale di primo piano. Gli Hua...
... Turiel would call these rules social conventions, because the Hua don’t believe that men in other tribes have to follow these rules. But the Hua certainly seemed to think of their food rules as moral rules. They talked about them constantly, judged each other by their food habits, and governed their lives, duties, and relationships by what the anthropologist Anna Meigs called “a religion of the body.”...
E l'Occidente attuale è eccezionale anche per la sua storia. La Bibbia...
... When I read the Hebrew Bible, I was shocked to discover how much of the book—one of the sources of Western morality—was taken up with rules about food, menstruation, sex, skin, and the handling of corpses...
Siamo di fronte a popoli arretrati rispetto a noi oppure siamo noi a nascondere la nostra voglia di purezza, in realtà mai sopita?...
... So what’s going on here? If Turiel was right that morality is really about harm, then why do most non-Western cultures moralize so many practices that seem to have nothing to do with harm?...
In effetti, la pruderie dei conservatori e le ossessioni alimentari dei progressisti sembrerebbero celare pulsioni puritane...
... Westerners, even secular ones, continue to see choices about food and sex as being heavily loaded with moral significance? Liberals sometimes say that religious conservatives are sexual prudes for whom anything other than missionary-position intercourse within marriage is a sin. But conservatives can just as well make fun of liberal struggles to choose a balanced breakfast—balanced among moral concerns about free-range eggs, fair-trade coffee, naturalness, and a variety of toxins, some of which (such as genetically modified corn and soy-beans) pose a greater threat spiritually than biologically...
***
Psicologi verso Antropologi.
I primi vedono morali arretrate. Per i secondi tutte le civiltà hanno pari valore...
... When anthropologists wrote about morality, it was as though they spoke a different language from the psychologists I had been reading...
Shwedwer (S) fa notare che la società occidentale è l'unica individualista. Forse è da lì che discende la sua etica desacralizzata...
... Shweder quoted the anthropologist Clifford Geertz on how unusual Westerners are in thinking about people as discrete individuals...
Individualismo vs Sociocentrismo. Occidente vs Resto del Mondo...
... Most societies have chosen the sociocentric answer, placing the needs of groups and institutions first, and subordinating the needs of individuals. In contrast, the individualistic answer places individuals at the center and makes society a servant of the individual...
Antichità e Illuminismo. Un match che si ripropone...
... The sociocentric answer dominated most of the ancient world, but the individualistic answer became a powerful rival during the Enlightenment...
Le teorie di ET e LK? Ad uso e consumo degli individualisti, secondo S...
... Shweder thought that the theories of Kohlberg and Turiel were produced by and for people from individualistic cultures...
Una cultura sociocentrica: gli Orissa...
... Shweder found almost no trace of social conventional thinking in the sociocentric culture of Orissa, where, as he put it, “the social order is a moral order.”...
E il culturalismo? Un modo per consentire agli individualisti di liquidare la natura morale delle convenzioni...
... The distinction between morals and mere conventions is not a tool that children everywhere use to self-construct their moral knowledge. Rather, the distinction turns out to be a cultural artifact, a necessary by-product of the individualistic answer to the question of how individuals and groups relate...
Ma ET tenta una replica: i primitivi non trascurano i danni a terzi, semplicemente, li vedono anche dove non ci sono...
... Turiel argued that once you take into account Indian “informational assumptions” about the way the world works, you see that most of Shweder’s thirty-nine stories really were moral violations, harming victims in ways that Americans could not see...
Occorre rispondere a ET: gli studi sugli "harmless taboo violation" servono a questo....
... I started writing very short stories about people who do offensive things, but do them in such a way that nobody is harmed. I called these stories “harmless taboo violations,”... I made up dozens of these stories but quickly found that the ones that worked best fell into two categories: disgust and disrespect...
Pulire il cesso con la bandiera nazionale è per voi un comportamento davvero indifferente dal punto di vista morale? Eppure non fa male a nessuno...
... For example, one of my disrespect stories was: “A woman is cleaning out her closet, and she finds her old American flag. She doesn’t want the flag anymore, so she cuts it up into pieces and uses the rags to clean her bathroom.”...
Obbiettivo: confutare ET raccontando storie disgustose.
In altri termini: anche noi occidentali sentiamo il richiamo della purezza, lo sentiamo eccome. Anche noi non siamo affatto indifferenti verso chi pulisce il cesso con la bandiera nazionale...
... Turiel’s rationalism predicted that reasoning about harm is the basis of moral judgment, so even though people might say it’s wrong to eat your dog, they would have to treat the act as a violation of a social convention...
S contro ET. Chi prevale? Questo vuole stabilire la sperimentazione di Jonathan Haidt...
... Shweder’s theory, on the other hand, said that Turiel’s predictions should hold among members of individualistic secular societies but not elsewhere...
Articolazione dell’esperimento. Proporre 4 aneddoti disgustosi proposti in 4 città con culture che vanno dal sociocentrismo all'individualismo. Chi condanna?
Esito: soprattutto i sociocentristi, cvd.
Ma... ma tutti sono sensibili alla purezza...
... Philadelphia would be the most individualistic of the three cities (and therefore the most Turiel-like) and Recife would be the most sociocentric (and therefore more like Orissa in its judgments). The results were as clear as could be in support of Shweder. First, all four of my Philadelphia groups confirmed Turiel’s finding that Americans make a big distinction between moral and conventional violations. I used two stories taken directly from Turiel’s research: a girl pushes a boy off a swing (that’s a clear moral violation) and a boy refuses to wear a school uniform (that’s a conventional violation)... I had included a probe question that directly asked, after each story: “Do you think anyone was harmed by what [the person in the story] did?” If Shweder’s findings were caused by perceptions of hidden victims (as Turiel proposed), then my cross-cultural differences should have disappeared when I removed the subjects who said yes to this question... But when I filtered out these people, the cultural differences got bigger, not smaller. This was very strong support for Shweder’s claim that the moral domain goes far beyond harm...
Ora possiamo ben dirlo: la purezza non è andata in soffitta, e quando si eclissa probabilmente non è per una maturazione morale ma per l'avvento di una cultura individualista... Non solo: riemerge in altre forme. A destra con il patriottismo, a sinistra nell’alimentazione e nel culto dell’ambiente…
... In other words, Shweder won the debate. I had replicated Turiel’s findings using Turiel’s methods on people like me—educated Westerners raised in an individualistic culture—but had confirmed Shweder’s claim that Turiel’s theory didn’t travel well. The moral domain varied across nations and social classes....
Ad uscire sconfitto è il razionalismo...
... It was hard to see how a rationalist could explain these results. How could children self-construct their moral knowledge about disgust and disrespect from their private analyses of harmfulness? There must be other sources of moral knowledge, including cultural learning (as Shweder argued), or innate moral intuitions about disgust and disrespect (as I began to argue years later)...
***
Curiosità: chi nelle storie disgustose "condanna" spesso "inventa" delle vittime.
Dubbio: ma viene prima la "vittima inventata" o l'azione malvagia? L'obiezione di ET torna in altra forma...
... Was this an example of the “informational assumptions” that Turiel had talked about? Were people really condemning the actions because they foresaw these harms, or was it the reverse process—were people inventing these harms because they had already condemned the actions?...
Ma, vittime a parte, prosegue la condanna, è questo l’esito di ulteriori verifiche. Poche speranze per ET...
... Yet even when subjects recognized that their victim claims were bogus, they still refused to say that the act was OK...
Il razionalismo esce male da questo tour de force sperimentale: noi condanniamo i comportamenti ripugnanti anche se non sappiamo dire perché. Mettiamo assieme qualche argomento ma giusto per difendere giudizi fondamentalmente istintivi. In fatto di morale il ragionamento ha un ruolo ancillare...
... These subjects were reasoning. They were working quite hard at reasoning. But it was not reasoning in search of truth; it was reasoning in support of their emotional reactions. It was reasoning as described by the philosopher David Hume, who wrote in 1739 that “reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions...