venerdì 8 luglio 2016

CHAPTER 13 Liberty as Means

CHAPTER 13 Liberty as MeansRead more at location 3236
Note: 13@@@@@@@@@@@@@ Edit
The Paradox of LibertyRead more at location 3238
Note: TITOLO. PARADOSSO DELLA LIBERTÀ Edit
Then how can we decide rationally among alternatives? The simplest answer is to hedge bets whenever possible.Read more at location 3240
Note: SCOMMESSE Edit
Various social, economic, and political arrangements have competed for survival, and those that persist therefore embed information about what worksRead more at location 3242
Note: INFO NASCOSTE Edit
This should lead us to see what is often termed “status quo bias” as, instead, a rational preference for the status quo.Read more at location 3243
Note: STATUS QUO BIAS Edit
but is not as simple as saying that the fittest social arrangements have survived, and therefore we live in the best of all possible worlds. First, the environment around us is constantly changing,Read more at location 3245
Note: EVOLUZNE ED EFFICIENZA Edit
At a more practical level, though we may be unable to fully understand the implications of political actions within the society,Read more at location 3248
Note: CONOSCENZA LIMITATA Edit
societies that consistently follow the mantra of “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” usually will lose out to those who consistently seek opportunities for self-improvement.Read more at location 3253
Note: VOGLIA DI MIGLIORARE Edit
it is hard to know what effects a given action will actually have.Read more at location 3255
Note: DIFFICOLTA DI MIGLIORAMENTO. 1 CALCOARE EFFETTI Edit
Second, people disagree about what effects constitute improvement.Read more at location 3256
Note: VALUTARE EFFETTI Edit
Of course, we often lack such evidence or alignment of values but still must take action. We cannot simply opt out of most decisions—weRead more at location 3266
Note: DECIDERE Edit
First, for the reasons described above, in the absence of experimental evidence we should have a rational status quo preference, and therefore place the burden of proof on those who advocate change.Read more at location 3269
Note: ONERE DRLLA PROVA Edit
we should as a next fallback try new ideas on a small scale with reduced risk.Read more at location 3271
Note: PROVARE SU BASSA SCALA Edit
Sometimes, however, we will face an all-or-nothing reform decision, as in the case of the huge stimulus program the United States launched after the 2008 financial crisis. These types of decisions are dangerous and should be avoided whenever possible.Read more at location 3277
Note: ALL OR NOTHING Edit
Our ignorance demands that we let social evolution operate as the least bad of the alternatives for determining what works.Read more at location 3283
Note: ACCOMODARE Edit
Subsocieties that behave differently on many dimensions are both the raw materials for an evolutionary process that sifts through and hybridizes alternative institutions,Read more at location 3283
Note: COMPETIZIONE TRA SUB SOCIETIES Edit
We want variation in human social arrangements for some of the same reasons that biodiversity can be useful in genetic evolution.Read more at location 3286
Note: BIODIVERSITÀ Edit
But if we take our ignorance seriously, the implications of this insight significantly diverge from much of what the modern libertarian movement espouses.Read more at location 3288
Note: LIBERTARIAN?: Edit
creating the raw material of new ideasRead more at location 3290
Note: RUOLO DELLA LIBERTÀ Edit
also provides a mechanism for testing, refining, and applying these new ideas.Read more at location 3291
separate argument for liberty is that it is a metaphysical good—thatRead more at location 3291
Note: VALORE IN SÈ Edit
I’ll call the more metaphysical argument liberty-as-goal, and the more prosaic argument I have made liberty-as-means.Read more at location 3294
Note: LIBERTÀ SCOPO O MEZZO? Edit
But these beliefs often conflict, raising what we could call the paradox of liberty, or more precisely, the paradox of liberty-as-means.Read more at location 3296
Note: CONFLITTO E PARADOSSO Edit
Should prostitution be legal? The canonical Libertarian Party position is that prostitution is a consensual act between adults and therefore should not be prohibited by law. The liberty-as-means position is far more tentative. We don’t know the overall effects of legalized prostitution.Read more at location 3297
Note: ESEMPIO PROSTITUZIONE Edit
What the liberty-as-means libertarian calls for is the freedom to experiment: let different localities try different things, and learn from this experience.Read more at location 3302
Note: LIBERTÀ D ESPERIMENTO Edit
Note: LOCALISMO Edit
This leads then to a call for “states as laboratories of democracy” federalism in matters of social policy,Read more at location 3305
Note: FEDERALISMO Edit
The characteristic error of the contemporary Right and Left in this is enforcing too many social norms on a national basis.Read more at location 3310
Note: NATIONAL BASIS Edit
The characteristic error of liberty-as-goal libertarians has been more subtle but no less severe: the parallel failure to appreciate that a national rule of “no restrictions on non-coercive behavior” (which, admittedly, is something of a cartoon) contravenes a primary rationale for liberty.Read more at location 3311
Note: L ERRORE LIBERTARIO Edit
What if social conservatives are right and the wheels really will come off society in the long run if we don’t legally restrict various sexual behaviors?Read more at location 3313
Note: WHAT IF Edit
What if some left-wing economists are right and it is better to have aggressive zoning laws that prohibit big-box retailers?Read more at location 3314
What if I’m right for some people at this moment in time but wrong for others, or what if I’m wrong for the same people ten years from now?Read more at location 3315
The freedom to experiment needs to include freedom to experiment with different governmental (i.e., coercive) rules.Read more at location 3317
Note: PLURALISMO SÌ LIBERTARISMO NO. Edit
So here we have the paradox: a liberty-as-means libertarian ought to support, in many cases, local autonomy to restrict at least some personal freedoms.Read more at location 3317
Note: LIBERTARIO: AUTONOMISTA NN INDIVIDUALISTA Edit
Three Limits to LibertyRead more at location 3319
Note: TITOLO. LIMITI DELLA LIBERTÀ Edit
extremeRead more at location 3320
three important categories of natural limitationsRead more at location 3321
Note: TRE LIMITI ALLA SPERIMENTAZIONE Edit
The first flows directly from the paradox of liberty.Read more at location 3321
repressedRead more at location 3324
one of the primary mechanisms by which more successful methods of organization win out over others in evolutionary competition is through people voting with their feet.Read more at location 3326
Note: VOTARE COI PIEDI Edit
So, one limit on the freedom to experiment is that subsocieties should not be allowed to trap adults.Read more at location 3328
Note: PRIMO LIMITE Edit
This does not imply a fully corresponding right of entry.Read more at location 3331
Note: ENTRY? Edit
A second limit can be created by external threats, of which one important type is foreign aggression, and another is rapid change in the physical environment.Read more at location 3335
Note: SEVONDO LIMITE: SICUREZZA E GUERRA Edit
A paradigmatic example of the former would be a surprise military attack, and of the latter would be the discovery of a killer asteroid hurtling toward the earth.Read more at location 3336
Note: ESEMPI Edit
The argument is that the invisible hand that somehow channels selfish desires to public ends under normal or historical conditions will not be sufficient to meet this new challenge.Read more at location 3339
Note: GUERRA BENE PUBBLICO Edit
the characteristic of suddennessRead more at location 3340
Note: EMERGENZA Edit
Throughout most of human history, leaders have used the threat of future foreign aggression to justify state control, but in modern Western democracies, long-term threats to the physical environment are also used for this purpose. Characteristically, though not universally, the political Right cites threats of foreign military action, and the political Left cites threats to the physical environment.Read more at location 3344
Note: DESTRA: MINACCIA SICUREZZA. SINISTRA: MINACCIA AMBIENTE Edit
Both sorts of argument are plausible, hence their salience and durability.Read more at location 3350
Note: IL GROSSO IMPEDISCE LA SPERIMENTAZIONE Edit
The third limit on liberty is created by the evolutionary desirability of collective action. In a competitive environment, societies can create advantages through various means that require some amount of coordination across the bulk of the society. Two key examples are economies of scale, and social cohesion to improve efficiency.Read more at location 3354
Note: TERZO LIMITE: BENI PUBBLICI. ECONOMIE DI SCALA E COESIONE SOCIALE Edit
Variation directly threatens economies of scale. For example, if products must conform to fifty state-level specifications in the United States, or dozens of national specifications in the European Union, operating businesses at scale becomes more expensive across the entire geography.Read more at location 3357
Note: SCALA Edit
The Nature and Importance of Social CohesionRead more at location 3362
Note: TITOLO COESIONE Edit
Suppose that US jurisdiction X, where you do not live and will never visit, decides to make orphanages mandatory for all children born out of wedlock.Read more at location 3363
Note: ES DELL ORFANATROFIO Edit
corporal punishment for the children in them.Read more at location 3364
“Some of the children traumatized into serial criminality by growing up in such orphanages are likely to leave this place and move to where I live,Read more at location 3366
Note: UN INCONVENIENTE Edit
But even if we assumed that these effects were in practice minimal for some policy in a distant jurisdiction, we still have a basis for objection. At some point we recoil.Read more at location 3367
Note: DISGUSTO Edit
nonrational attachment to a larger collective.Read more at location 3369
Note: VOGLIA DI TRIBÙ Edit
It could therefore be the case that we have evolved innate tendencies to attach to collectives, among other seemingly altruistic behaviors.Read more at location 3388
Note: ALTRUISMO Edit
Recognizing this aspect of human nature leads to messy complexity, but a humane political system conforms itself to the crooked timber of humanity, not the other way around.Read more at location 3396
Note: AMMETTERE Edit
Like science, which requires a community of scientists who share a specific morale, all real organizations that succeed over time are held together partially by common assent to ideals, and are not perceived by the participants as merely rational deals between entirely self-interested parties.Read more at location 3401
Note: COMUNITÀ Edit
collective—IBM, the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, the Pittsburgh Steelers, the US Marine Corps, the University of Cambridge, or the United States of America—appeals to the rational self-interest of its members but also creates a sense of irrational identification with the enterprise.Read more at location 3404
Note: IDENTIFICAZIONE Edit
I define social cohesion as the amalgamation of this subjective attitude (the combination of irrational loyalty to a collective and a belief of “we’re all in it together”), the widespread expectation that this attitude is shared, and the behaviors that flow from it.Read more at location 3414
Note: DEFINIZIONE Edit